Ecology + Capitalist Modernity = Reformist Ecology (Modernist)
Want Ecological Balance
'Limits to Growth' - Environmental degradation ultimately threatens prosperity + economic performance. So. . . Sustainable Development
'Weak' Sustainability = Getting rich more slowly
Damage to environment = Externality (social cost)
Modernist ecologists attempted a balance of . . modernization + sustainability
Chief influence on Reformism = Utalitarianism
Reformist Ecology practices 'enlightened' Anthropocentrism = encouraging individuals to take account of long term interests
Future generations are entitled to the same living standards as the present generation
Hope . . . New technology + Human ingenuity = Environmental improvement
- Market Ecologism (green capitalism) ie green taxes - adjust markets to account for damage to the environment. making externalities internal to businesses responsible for them.
- Human ingenuity and green technologies ie drought resistant crops, energy efficient transport - create environmentally friendly form of industrialization
- International Regimes + transnational regulation - global governance = impact of 'tragedy of the commons' can be reduced (never removed)
Radicalism - encompasses a range of green perspectives 'Social ecology'
Explain balance humankind + nature via social structures
capitalist modernity = root cause of environmental degradation
3 ways of social change:
- Ecosocialism - environmental critique of capitalism. Capitalism's anti-ecological bias from tendancy of private property & 'commodification'. Hope = socialist society
- Ecoanarchism - environmental critique of hierarchy and authority. Domination over people = domination over nature. Balance of nature and mankind restored through abolition of state.
- Ecofeminism - environmental critique of patriarchy. Domination over women = domination over nature. Respect for nature = creation of a post-patriarchal society.
'deep' ecology - change in way of thinking about the world. Rejecting anthropocentrism, embracing ecocentrism.
World should be understood in terms of interconnectedness + interdependance.
Humans are part of nature, not more important.
Critical of consumerism +materialism - distort relationship between humans + nature.
Argue that morality is from nature, so support idea of . . . Biocentric Equality