Physics definitions G484

A set of all the definitions you need to know for ocr A physics unit G484

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  • Created by: grace
  • Created on: 27-09-10 09:31

NEWTONS FIRST LAW

A force is neccessary to change the state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line of a body.


  • If you are staionary you will remain stationary unless a resultant force acts upon you.
  • If you want to change your direction of travel a resultant force must act upon you.
  • If you want to speed up or slow down a resultant force must act upon you.
  • If you are moving with constant velocity there is zero resultant force acting upon you.
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NEWTONS SECOND LAW

The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the resultant (net) for acting upon it.

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THE NEWTON

One newton is the force that will give a mass of one kilogram an accelleration of one metre per second

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LINEAR MOMENTUM

The mass of an object multiplied by its velocity

change in momentum = force x time

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NEWTONS THIRD LAW

When body A exerts a force on body B, body B exerts a force that is

  • equal
  • opposite in direction
  • the same type
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CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

In any direction, in the absence of external forces the total momentum of a system remains constant.

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IMPULSE

Impulse = Change in momentum of a body

equal to area underneath a force - time graph

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ELASTIC COLLISIONS

In a perfectly elastic collison NO momentum or kinetic energy is lost

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INELASTIC COLLISIONS

In an elastic collision momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not.

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RADIANS

One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of lenth equal to the circles radius.

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THE PERIOD

The period of an object in circular motion is the time taken for it to complete one revolution.

In equation form it it is

period = circumference/velocity

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CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION

The centripetal acceleration of an object travelling in a circle of radius r with constant velocity is given by the equation:

acceleration = velocity squared / radius

in a direction towards the centre of the circle

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A FIELD

The region in which a force operates

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GRAVITATIONAL FIELD STRENGTH

The gravitational field strength at any point is the force acting per unit mass at that point

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GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

The gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

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KEPLARS THIRD LAW

The period of a planet squared equals the mean radius of its orbit

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TERMS TO DESCRIBE OSCILLATIONS

DISPLACEMENT - The distance an object has moved form its mean / rest position.

AMPLITUDE - Maximum displacement

FREQUENCY- The number of oscillations per unit time at any point

PERIOD (OF OSCILLATION) - Time for one complete pattern of oscillation to take place at any point

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SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

An object undergoing simple harmonic motion:

- Has an acceleration proportional to its displacement from a fixed point

- Accelerates in the opposite direction to the displacement

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DAMPING

Deliberately reducing the amplitude of an oscillation

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RESONANCE

The build-up fo an large amplitude oscillation when the frequency of vibrating objects match

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DENSITY

Mass per unit volume

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PHASE

Whether a substance is in the form of solid, liquid or gas

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PRESSURE

Force per unit area

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INTERNAL ENERGY

The internal energy of a body is the sum of the random distributions within it and also all the potential energies of molecules in its body.

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IDEAL GAS

A gas that has internal energy only in the form of random kinetic energy.

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THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

Two objects at the same temperature

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SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

The quantity of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by a unit temperature rise.

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SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT OF FUSION

The quantity of energy per unit mass required to change it at constant temperature from a solid to a liquid.

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SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT OF VAPOURISATION

The specific latent heat of vapourisation od a substance is the quantity of energy per unit mass required to change it at constant temperature from liquid to vapour.

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BOYLES LAW

The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted on it, provided that temperature is constant.

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IDEAL GAS EQUATION

for a fixed mass of an ideal gas, at constant temperature, its volume V is proportional to the ideal gas temperature T.

T will be in kelvin.

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THE MOLE

This can be used to determine the number of molecules in any quantity of any substance.

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Comments

k4l397

Really good resource. Only one thing is on the Keplar's Third Law one it should be mean radius cubed not just mean radius.

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