physical geography f763 atmospheric hazards - issue

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 30-03-15 11:23

Atmospheric hazards course

global warming 

hurricanes / typhoons / cyclones - storm surge 

tornadoes 

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global warming +ves and -ves

+ves 

  • yields will increase (timber / crops)
  • milder winters + warmer summers (reduced energy demands)
  • grow mediterranean crops 
  • higher plant + fish diversity 

-ves 

  • inc rainfall = loss of land from flooding = less access 
  • inc crop pests due to milder winters 
  • cost of inc coastal defences 
  • recuded water supply 
  • more forest fires 
  • collapse of gulf stream (4   sea temp increase) 
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global warming issues

Sea levels rise

  • thermal exapnsion of water 
  • TERRESTIAL ice melt 

MEDC's + NIC's produce most GHG's (Europe is now steady) 

  • more developed using industry 

Unequal nature of temp change

  • poles inc 6 
  • low latitudes inc 2 
  • Albedo (darker surface after ice melt) 
  • Release of gases rom permafrost (methane + HYDROUS methane) 

Coral bleaching 

  • inc CO2 = temp inc = algae inc photosynthesis = coral expels too much algae = coral dies 
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global warming management

International 

  • UN
  • Kyoto Protocol 
  • reduce GHG's and based on presumption that man has caused global warming)

National  - UK

  • London waste managament - 
  • London transport management - red routes, LEZ, barclays, conjestion charges, catalytic C
  • smoke controlled areas - Kensington 
  • flue gas desulfurisation + scrubbers in factories - reduces SO2 by 90%
  • update greener infrastructure
  • tax incentives + fines  

Individual 

  • recycle 
  • energy saving - bulbs, thermostat, insulate 
  • smarter driving 
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hurricanes

Saffir simpson index 

  • 1-5 

High winds 

  • structural damage / poor communication / debris 

Storm surge 

  • salinisation / pollution / drowning 

Rainfall 

  • landslides / silt addition / property damage / sewage inc 
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hurricane Katrina background

background 

  • 29th August 2005 
  • Saffir simpson index Cat 1 in SE bahamas 
  • gulf 2  warmer waters 
  • 130 mph winds and 12 ft storm surge hit coast of USA as Cat 4

New Orleans -

  • 500,000 people below sea level
  • 80% 20ft under water 
  • Mississippi river and lake pontchartrain overflowed on both ends of New Orleans 
  • 2 holes in roof of Super Dome 
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hurricane Katrina impacts

Economic 

  • $81Bn
  • Biloxi bridge destroyed 
  • 2 levees failed 
  • no structures left standing 2 miles inland 

Environemental 

  • 217 miles saline water 
  • 20% marshes permanenlty overrun by water 
  • 16 national wildlife refuges closed 

Social 

  • 1500 people died 
  • 2 holes in Super Dome roof 
  • looting / emergency services stretched / insurance inc. 
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hurricane Katrina responses

Interntional 

  • 70 coutries assisted 
  • $100's millions donated 
  • supplies - water pumps / medicine / hygiene / blankets 

National -

Evacuation 

  • poor / ill / elderly were forced to stay 
  • Super Dome 800 people capacity however stored 30,000 
  • New Orlean's civic centre 25,000 people 

Emergency 

  • 11,000 national guard 
  • 6 months - year major services / buildings repaired 
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Cuba hurricane risk management

Education and Training

  • disaster preparedness / prevention / response 
  • schools / uni's / workplaces informed and trained on how to cope 
  • every year - 2 day training session - risk reduction / simulation exercises 

Civil defence + Meteorological insitute 

  • people taught how to interpret infor by meteorology institute 
  • television and radio inform public on level of alert 
  • local authorities know who requires special care and most vulnerable 
  • schools to shelters + tranport organised 
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hurricane management strategies

Prepare 

  • forecast + warning systems 
  • education + training 
  • stockpiling of supplies 
  • emergency legislation 
  • evacuation plan 
  • shelters

Protect 

  • buildings raised above sea level 
  • improve building design 
  • legislative controls restricting development on high risk flood plain 
  • man made coastal defences 
  • research into improving protection measures 
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Cyclone Sidr background + impacts

Background

  • 15th November 2007 
  • Bangladesh - North end of Bay of Bengal 
  • densely populated / 1m below sea level / food supply fishing / farming
  • 140km/h winds / 5m storm surge / Cat 4 

Impacts

Economic - $1.7 Bn / 500,000 houses / 1.1 M livestock / 1,500 km roads / 250,000km roads 

Social-  3500 died / 7M lives affected / 650,000 evacuated / cholera 

Environmental World Heritage Site - Sunderbans (25% damaged) / 2M acres crop land 

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Cyclone Sidr responses

Prepare 

  • satellite warnings 
  • mobile texts 
  • remote areas warned by police cars 
  • 10s of thousands evacuated inland 
  • rail services stopped 

Short term 

  • relief crews 
  • aid by emergency services took days - angered people 

Long term 

  • paddy fields unstable 
  • water + power supplies slow to return 
  • relief was slow - blocked raods / very little insurance cover 
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Tri-State Tornado

Background

  • 18th March 1925 
  • longest uninterrupted paths 219 miles / 3.5 Hour duration
  • before the first Tornado forecast (1948)

Impacts 

Economic - $16.5 M /  $1.5Bn (today) /  15,000 homes

Social - 689 lives / 2,027 injured / no shelter / fires / looting  

Environmental 

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Tornadoes Issue + management

Causes

  • unknown precise details - super cell development / trailing edge location 

Effects 

  • Economic - housing cost / insurance boom / powerlines / crops / schools
  • Social - deaths / injuries / pop. displacement / stress 
  • Environemental - soil erosion / trees / habitats 

Strategies 

  • Informed evacuation - Met Office gives 20 min shelter time 
  • Building design - brick + stone materials 
  • More research - analysing rainfall patterns 
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