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Perception

Gregory's indirect theory (1974)
A lot of information reaches the eye, but much is lost by the time it reaches the brain
(Gregory estimates about 90% is lost).Therefore, the brain has to guess what a person sees
based on past experiences. We actively construct our perception of reality. Gregory…

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The indirect approach explain the way our perceptual system deals with ambiguous
situations where the retinal image is poor.
However most studies are done in an artificial set up therefore fails to explain our own
realworld perception.
Theory fails to explain why we continue to see visual illusions even though…

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Three important components of Gibson's Theory are
1. Optic Flow Patterns
2. Invariant Features and
3. Affordances.
These are now discussed.

1. Optic Flow Patterns
Changes in the flow of the optic array contain important information about what type of
movement is taking place. For example:
i) Any flow in…

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3. Affordances
Are, in short, cues in the environment that aid perception. Important cues in the environment
include:
OPTICAL ARRAY: The patterns of light that reach the eye from the environment.
RELATIVE BRIGHTNESS: Objects with brighter, clearer images are perceived as closer
TEXTURE GRADIENT: The grain of texture gets smaller…

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Gibson and Walk (1960) found that infants and animals perceive depth innately and thus
supporting Gibson's idea of perception.
Sahin et al (2007): the concept of affordance has been successfully applied to autonomous
robots, which are able to learn about the meaning of objects in their environment.
Wraga et al…

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Newborn infants: shown preference to face like patterns than nonface patterns. Show
greater interest in more complex images. Brennan et al (1966) shows infants checkerboard
patterns of increasing complexity (2 by 2, 4 by 4, and then 24 by 24) 1 month old infants
preferred most complex ones. Youngest infants…

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Forest Dwellers: Colin Turnbull (1963): Bambuti pygmy saw buffalo grazing in distance
(only used to seeing forest) not used to distance so asked what insects they were. Replied
they were buffalos he laughed. His lack of experience with perception led to inability to use
distance perception to interpret size.
Pictorial…

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show no information about depth) and eidolic images (illustrations look 3D even when they
are impossible i.e. two pronged trident) Hudson picture is more epitomic whereas task by
Jahoda and McGurk is more eidolic and explains why there was more three dimensional
responders on this task. E.g. used texture gradient…

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Bruce and Young: Model presents face recognition in series of stages which are accessed
one after the other. At one time there may only be one path activated. Two sections: one to
recognise familiar faces and one to recognise facial expressions.

Structural Encoding: Pictorial code created and transformed into a…

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Fantz (1961) showed infants as young as 4 days old three
pictures. All the infants seemed slightly more interested in
the picture that was closest to a real face rather than them
being jumbled up.
Goren et al (1975): face recognition make sense to be
innate as has adaptive value…

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