Top-down indirect perception theory. combination of sensory info, knowledge from previous experience and inference to perceive world. visual illusions are misapplied hypotheses
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Mailbox and breadloaf in kitchen, will see bread if mailbox, contextual info from prior knowledge. expectations influence perception
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people living in carpentered environments will be affected by muller lyer illusion. expectations from environment
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Bottom-up direct perceptual theory. optical array, invariant aspects of environment, affordances and texture gradients are all that's needed to perceive world. only sensory info.
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small lights on person moving, able to to perceive motion from dot array changes, present in infants = INNATE
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Time to contact : Gannets fold wings when diving at constant time before contacting water: visual optic array provides perceptual data
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Cyclic perceptual model, begins with retinal image (Gibs) and then expectations are used to form and test hypotheses (greg)
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Gibson and Walk
Visual cliff, infants experienced faster HR when encougraged to crawl over virtual 'cliff' illusion, indicates innate depth perception.
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Motion parallax, infants habituated to a display of 3 rods with one moving with the infant (MP) shown 2 other displays = different motion parallax and no MP, reacted to no motion parallax. motion parallax perception is INNATE
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infants could differentiate between cubes of same actual and same retinal size, could perceive size constancy
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Blakemore and Cooper
Cats kept in environment with only vertical lines, lost ability to perceive horizontal lines, innate visual brain areas had been shaped by experience NATURE NURTURE
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pygmies living in dense forest, had little depth perception, based on experience
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Jahoda and McGurk
shown silhouetted pictures, with texture gradient depth cues and retinal image diferences, ghanaian and scottish kids told to replicate with wooden models, conclusion: ghanians not deficient in perceiving depth.
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Zulus and British children shown pictures of spear wielding man pointing it to an antelope, depth cues show elephant in background (occlusion), after education, all europeans and only some zulus could identify depth
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Epitomic image: provide NO depth info (jahoda and McGurk) Eidolic image: provides depth cues (hudson), may not have been problems with depth perception, problems with pictorial representation instead
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changed hudson questions to depth questions relating to the child, not the hunter, perception improved
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Bruce and Young
Serial unitary model for face recognition, involves info about basic invariant structure, then FRU, containing info about familiar faces, and then PIN, containing personal info about the familiar people, face is then put to name
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Infants = innate preference for general 'face' structure, rather than jumbled features. adaptive, allows child to elicit caregiving more easily
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Face recog is separate from object recog = Fusiform Face Area of brain more active when processing faces than when processing objects
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Face Recog is not special : Fusiform Face Area stimulated when a person processed an object that they were interested in (birdwatcher = bird)
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Diary study, people who couldn't recognise familiar faces did not have vital personal info. explains serial nature of FRU - PIN - Name retrieval
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Farmer, could not recognise familiar faces, but could recognise his own sheep and unfamiliar faces
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Fusiform Gyrus (FFA) active when Faces are recognised. Also found that object, face and text (alexia) recognition are on a continuum between configural (structural) processing and Holistic (relationship based) processing
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Case study - Damage to occipital and temporal lobes = could not recognise familiar + own face, could when given contextual cues (hair, glasses etc)
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PET scans = weaker FFA responses in developmental prosopagnosics
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used nonsensical figures generated on computer = Greebles, prosopagnisics could identify and differentiate between greebles, although FFA could still be activated by greebles, Face recog is completely separate from any object recog.
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