PE Unit 4

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Balanced Diet

Balacned Diet is where you eat the corect proportions of the components of diet.

The Components of Diet are...

  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Protein
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Fibre
  • Water 
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Two types of carbohydrates. They are Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

Why are carbohydrates important?

Simple (Sugar) - Provide quick energy

Complex (Starch) - Provides long term energy = Long Distnce Runner

Where do we find Carbohydrates?

Simple - Pasta, Cereals, Potatoes

Complex - Fizzy Drinks, Cakes, Sweets

Carbohydrates need to make up 60% of our diets

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Why are Fats important?

Provides slow energy


Protects vital organs

Where do we find Fats?

Oils, Dairy, Nuts

Fats need to make up 25% of our diets

Fats are useful for walking and low impact sports

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Why are Proteins important?

Builds muscle

Repairs muscle 

Where do we find Protein?

Meat, Fish, Eggs, Chicken

Protein need to make up 15% of our diets

Proteins are useful for people who are doing hard training or recovering from injury

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There are 4 types of vitamins:

Vitamin A - Vision
Vitamin B - Energy Production
Vitamin C - Healthy Skin
Vitamin D - Bones/Teeth 

Why are Vitamins important?

Helps body work

Helps concentration

Where do we find Vitamins?

Fruits, Vegetables and Fish

Vitamins contain iron and prevent fatigue

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Why are Minerals important?

Release energy from food

Helps decision making

Where do we find Minerals?

Fruits, Vegetables, Milk


Calcium - Strengthen Bones

Helps training and Competitions

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Why is Fibre important?

Cant be digested (fills you up)

Keeps you regular

Where do we find Fibre?

Fruits, Vegetables & Wholegrain Cereals

Fibre is essential to keep you healthy and to digest

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Why is Water important?

Maintains fluid levels

Avoid dehydration

Where do we find Water?


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BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR) is the amount of energy required to live and keep healthy.

Males - 1 x Body Mass (kg) x 24 (hours) = BMR

BMR can be influenced by:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Body Size
  • Body Composition
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Health Problems

We lose weight when our body needs more energy than we get from our diet.
We gain weight when our body needs less energy than we get from our diet. 

There are many health problems related to eating too little/too much:

  • Obesity
  • Anorexia
  • Bulimia
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You are obese when you are 20% over their weight for there height

Obesity can lead to many health problems:

  • Diabetes
  • Pressure on heart
  • Circulation Problems - Blood Vessel blocked
  • Self Esteem Issues (Mental)
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Anorexia is where you are dangerously underweight.

Anoresia is physcological illness whre you see yourself as fat/overweight. When they are extremely thin.

Health problems related with anorexia:

  • Fainting - Lack of energy
  • Cold - Lack of fat
  • Lack of muscles
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Bulimia is where you eat and then you make yourself sick, people do it because they think it makes you thin.

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Sports with Weight

Some sports have levels of weight they have to stay within

e.g Boxing, Horse Racing, Weight Lifting

If you are overweight, you can be restricted by flexibility, reduce levels of stamina and speed

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Carbohydrate Loading

  • Used by Endurance Athletes to boost stores of energy before a big race.
  • 3 days before a race, you reduce level of exercise.
  • However they increase the amount of carbohydrates in diet to increase stores of glucose
  • Most beneficial to athletes who take part in endurance events such as marathons 
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High Protein Diet

Weightlifter and athletes use this diet if they are needing a loss of weight over a short period of weeks.

Can also be used to repair damaged tissues and make you recover from injury.

Body builder or rugby players use this diet to burn fat and increase muscle size.

Health Problems:

  • Increased Cholesterol Levels ----> Heart disease, Diabetes, stroke and cancer.
  • Kidney Damage
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Maintain Fluid Levels

Important to drink plenty of fluids during exercise, to avoid dehydration which leads to poor performance. Also to avoid heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Amount of water loss depends on:

  • How hard we exercise
  • How long we exercise for
  • Weather Conditions
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Eating During Before & After

Eating Before:

  • Eat a main meal 3-4 hour before, Snack 1-2 hours before.(Enough time to be digested)
  • Include starches such as potatoe and rice
  • Avoid simple sugars
  • Avoid food high in fat and protein (take longer to digest)
  • Plenty of Fluids

Eating During:

  • Should not eat during, something small like a banana could help.
  • Drink water whenever possible

Eating After:

  • Eat foods rich in carbohydrates within an hour to restore energy levels
  • Drink plenty of water to replace lost fluids
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