The School Curriculum:
Benefits - promotes participation in sport, demonstrates fitness levels, encourages a healthy lifestyle, offers a range of activities, extends skills, provides leisure pursuits, experiences different ways to enjoy sport, experiences healthy competition, develops a variety of skills and develops social skills.
The national healthy schools programme is a government initiative aiming to develop children that are happier, healthier, safer and better learners. The themes of the initiative include physical activity, emotional health, emotional well being, healthy eating and physical, social and health education.
Healthy eating was introduced into schools to provide a balance of food avaliable for both students and staff by eating small amounts of fats and proteins and larger amounts of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. Physical activity is used in schools to improve the nations health and intorducing opportunities for physical activity. It aims to; increase physcial activity, increase wellbeing, increase understanding of the importance of an active lifestyle.
Extra Curricular Opportunities:
As an extension to PE lessons many schools provide extra sessions after school and during lunch called extra curricular activities. They provide many benefits;
- become team members and have the opportunity to become a leader of the team
- visit others schools and outside trips for sporting events
- develop links with lubs and providers
- improve sports performance by joining after school clubs increasing skill level
PESSCL - Physical Education School Sport and Club Links is a strategy funded by the government to increase sporting opportunities for 5 to 16 year olds with atleast 2 hours in school. There are 8 strands to the programme;
Specialist sport collages
Step into sport
Club links between the local community
Gifted and talented
PE and sport investigation
PESSYP - Pe and Sport Strategy for Young People was a strategy aimed at 5 to 19 year olds to target schools. There are 9 work strands;
Club links - governments work with shcools to give sporting opportunities
Coaching - funsing was made for coaches at schools
Competition - competitions within and between schools
Disability - sports clubs for disabled people
Extending activities - non traditional sports opportunities
Gifted and talented - provides support for exceptional athletes
Infastructure - the coordination of school sport
Leadership and volunteering - engage in leadership
Swimming - increase opportunities to take part in swimming
Emotional Health and Well Being:
Vulnerable individuals and groups - noone should feel vulnerable because of their gender, sexuality, ethnicity or disability. Schools put in place pastoral support systems and care plans to help those who are emotionally/physically vulnerable.
Bullying policies - schools have anti bullying policies in place for discussion to hear the views of students, parents and staff. The policy sets out how to deal with bullying and the staff should be confident in identifying and managing the issue.
Behaviour and rewards policies - these policies support positive behaviour in schools and they explain how positive behaviour by hte students is rewarded so students know how to succeed.
Confidential pastoral support systems - each school should have a clear plan set out for confidential pastoral care so students and staff have access. The systems work against discrimination and support all those in need.
The amount of leisure time avaliable has increased for most people due to a number of factors and so the extra leisure time has created a demand for more facilities and more active opportunities to be made avaliable.
The main factors are technology that speed up jobs that would normally eat into your leisure time. Also the amount of time spent at the workplace has decreased due to improved technology doing the job quicker than before.
Local authorities and sports clubs allocate specific times in the day for particular user groups such as parent and toddler, schools, disabled etc.
Participating in any activity or event requires the performer to follow the rules of the game. Etiquette is the unwritten code of behaviour of a perforemer when competiting. For a game to be fair on both sides all players should keep to the rules of the game and officials should stop any play that contravenes such rules.
A person can be influenced in sport participation by many social factors for example their peers or family.
Peers can put pressure on you either positively such as providing encouragement, sharing knowledge and giving advice. Or negatively such as causing distractions, being undermining and ridiculing your efforts.
Family also affects participation such as; can discourage participation, could undermine the sport, can provide financial support, can provide transport, can coach children, can put too much pressure on you and can support you.
Gender can infulence your participation in a postive and negative way;
+ women are encourgaed to take part, more competition is avaliable, good coaches are avalaible and publicity will increase participation.
- there might be a lack of facilitites aimed at women, there might be a lack of female coaches and there may be few female teams to compete with.
The development of a multicultural society increases the importance of new cultures in physical education. Dress codes and codes of behaviour may interfere with some ethnic participation.
Roles in Sport, Courses and Qualifications:
The different roles of sport that schools offer can encourage all students to get involved. There is opportunity to learn and put into practice new skills such as; planning, problem solving, observation, communication, leadership, coaching, organising, official, choreographer and ICT skills.
There are increasingly more opportunities to become regularly involved in sport so schools can organize internal competitions and teams to play one another.
Accredited courses and qualifications are recognised nationally as understanding and knowledge in a particular area. There are many accredited courses avaliable with many aims that include; giving opportunities to enjoy participation, teaching and developing performance and skills based courses.
There are a range of job opportunities these courses cover - sports therapist, sports leader, physiotherapist, sport scientist, outdoor activities instructor, fitness instructor, sports coach and leisure centre assistant.
Proffesionals - to proffessional performers sport is their jobs, they recieve financial reward for participating. The greater the reward the bigger the financial reward. They get their money from; wages, bonuses, apperance money, winnings, transfer fees, media work, sponsorships and endorsments.
Amateurs - they participate in sport as a leisure activity which takes place in their own time and they have no payment for their involvement. they get their money form; expenses, gifts, scholarships, trsut funds, occupation and sponsorship.
Open cometitions invite all performers to compete no matter what gender or whether they are amateur or proffesional. This brings together sportspeople from all backgrounds and with all levels of experience. Improved sports facilities and an increase in leisure time mean that amateurs can commit more time to their sport.
The press - the back pages of most newspapers are devoted to current sporting events. Journalists and photographers gather up to date information about matches and events for publication through the journalists eyes.
Terrestrial television - the impact of television coverage on sport has been positive and negative;
+ keeps people informed on up to date information in sport, better technology aids decisin making, new events can be seen, enhances sport development, encourages sport participation, increases sponsorship, money goes to the sport.
- only major sports have coverage, can discourgae watching sport live, accidents can be exaggerated, the director controls what is watched, subtle rule changes may occur, replays can undermine officials and puts extra pressure on performers
Cable and satellite television - there is greater airtime and so there is a wider variety of sports being aired. They are only avaliable to those paying subscription.
+ there is greater coverage of minority sports, makes a wider variety of sports more accesible, helps increase sport funding, attracts interest, encourages sponsorship and increases depth of coverage for major sports.
- sport rules may change to suit advert breaks, sport seasons change to suit the media viewing times and sport can suffer from overexposure.
The internet - the newest and quickest form of media providing up to date information about the sport.
The radio - radio regularly broadcasts specialist sports programmes including live coverage of matches, discussions and informative programmes.
Types Of Output:
Informative programmes such as sports news are based on facts that give the viewer more information about a sport, event, club or performer.
Educational programmes are productions dealing with coaching and helping people learn about the skills, tactics and strategies of a game or activity.
Instructive programmes is closely linked with educational programmes but is mainly interested in teaching the viewer about a specific sport.
Entertaining programmes are designed for enjoyment such as highlight programmes and celebrity quiz shows. They also include live coverage of matches and special events.
Advantages to the sponsor: financial gain from product sales, develops a healthy image, helps promote minority sports and financial gain through tax relief.
Disadvantages to the sponsor: doesn't guarantee success, can be risky backing a new talent, injury may shorten career and the product may fail to sell.
Advantages to the performer: supplies equiptment, supplies clothing, pays for coaching, provides transport, pays entry fees to competitions and provides a living.
Disadvantages to the performer: sponsorship may only be short term, performer may have to commit to be used in media advertising, performer may have to fulfil other demands and performer may have to wear clothes they don't like.
Types Of Competitions:
Ladder - competitors names are drawn and placed vertically in a ladder. Players are able to challenge other competitors above them in order to move up the ladder. If they win they swap places on the ladder with the person they played.
Knock out tournaments - the players that keep winning tournaments stay in the competition until there are two competitors remaining and they play the final match to find the winner.
Combination events - each event is made up of a series of different disciplines, the result in each discipline earns points for the competitor. The points are accumulated throughout the competition and the athlete with the highest number of points at the end is the winner.
Grassroots are for young beginners learning the sport and developing their skills. The competitions involve games that have been adapted from the full game.
Novice competitions can be adapted to many sports, they generally use the official equiptment and rules of the game to ease the participant into full competition.
Local amateur leagues can be adapted to most sports, sunday league is for those who work full time. Each team plays all the teams in the league on a home and away basis. Proffessional leagues has set fixtures between all the other teams in a league and accumulate points for wins and draws.
Round robin competitions involve each team playing all the other competitors, the team winning the most games wins the competition.
Tournaments are when teams need to qualify for competition which takes place 3 years running up to the final competition. Each team plays the others in a round robin basis and the top two teams go through to knockout stages.
International Sporting Events:
+ home teams recieve greater sport, more family members to provide support, home performers are used to the culture, increase in jobs, increase in tourism, increased assets of the country, improved infastructure, people of the nation are inspired to participate in sport and poorer areas are improved.
- magnet for protest groups, posibility of the threat of terrorism, alot of pressure on the country, new facilities are expensive, homes and buisnesses may have to relocate out of the community, increased pollution and congestion and possible increase in taxes to pay for the event.
High Profile Events and Role Models:
High profile events attract competitors from all over the world.
+ keeps with tradition, focal point for that sport, established event in the sporting year, organizers can continue to improve the event, tv broadcasts take sport to new countries and performers can train on the events particular surface.
- monopolies trade at the event making purchases ecpensive, tv rights may be bought by satellite companies, events with leagues may find teams suffer the yoyo effect of being promoted and relegated and rich clubs may dominate.
Role models can influence peoples opinions and attitudes; people see them performing and want to join in the same sport, people want to compy their achievements, people want to copy their technique, they are regularly seen in the media, people like the way they behave, people like thier lifestyle, people copy their behaviour, people copy the way they dress and they may advertise their sport.
Healthy and Safety:
Any involvement in sport carries possible risks, following the correct guidelines for the event can help prevent these risks:
Correct technique - risks are reduced is the correct technique and skills are performed, good coaching and regular practice will build skills and technique.
Appropriate footwear - footwear is specialised to a particular sport and are usually technical to suit a variety of conditions. The correct footwear gives support, grip, movement and aids performance and streamlining.
Appropriate clothing - the clothing for team events gives the feeling of unity to the group and can help with safety for that sport. Clothing should be in good order, fit appropriately, not catch on equiptment, not hinder performance and allow free movement to perform the skills of the game appropriately.
ICT and Technology:
The equiptment for an activity should be kept in good condition helping the player perform and protecting the safety of all concerned. Each game has its own rules to make the game fair and safe, it is the players reponsibility to keep within the rules of the game in competative situations.
The development of ICT and technology helps within sport. Some specialised devices can be used to improve performance and prevent injury. Technology can be used to record and analyse performance which can help them to improve.