Command Style - authoritarian - no learner input teacher makes decisions. use when - dangerous situations - challenging groups - large group's - beginners - maturity of group - limited facilities.
Reciprocal - small group's each with different roles feedback to one another based of criteria set by teacher. - mixed ability group's - mature - develop communication.
guided discovery - guidelines and outcome given find out how to do it. - students take ownership - creativity - time consuming.
Problem solving - no teacher input - student ownership - trial and error - time consuming - creativity - mixed ability groups.
methods of presenting practice
aquiring and developing skill
whole - kinesthesis development -schema - time limit - skills that cant be brocken down. - simple skills
Whole part whole - whole skill done first - then broken down into parts - perfected and improved - practice whole again - time consuming.
part - complex skills - low organised - practice just one part - eg legs in breaststroke.
progressive part - breack down into parts and chain together - dance routine - A + B +C
conciderations - skill complexity, mature/ability of group, weather it can be brocken down.
ways of structuring practice time
massed - continuous repetitions of same skill - motivated expirienced groupe -descrite skill - high fitness - limited time.
distributed - some rests between skills - breaks maybe rest or another activity - begginers - less fitness and motivation - mantal rehersal in breaks
variable - vary practice create a variety of situations open skills - changing enviroment - good for low motivation
mental - rehersal without physical movement - metal rehersal - see through minds eye - good for injured players
methods of guidance
visual - image of skill - demonstration, video - good for begginers - create mental image.
verbal - speech to develope skill - cue words trigger focus points - feedback at end - help selective attention
manual/machanical - physically moving limb or body to correct position - use of aid physically restricted so only correct movement achieved.
conciderations - skill complexity - ability - enviroment - maturity
types of feedback
possitive - correct movement - reinforcment - eg. praise from coach
negative - withdrawl of negative feedback when carried out well
internal - from within eg kinesthesis
external - from the outside eg coach
knowledge of performance - how well it was exicuted - how felt
knowlledge of result - how youv doen eg. time in race, points scored
terminal - after performance - when its finished
concurrent - during performance
immediate - straight away
delayed - after eg. next training session
considerations when planning a training session to
- coaches expirience
principles of training
specific - relivant to activity and individual
progression - training must gradually progress in order to improve - overload
overload - work harder to increase training load - FITT frequancy, intensity, time and type
reversibility - if training stops you will loose fitness, a third of the rate it was gained
teduim - boredom - must be focused interested and motivated - variety
calculating working intensities
karvonon principle - training zones - max HR (heart rate) - heart rate range. 220 - age - max HR this is generally not everyone same height ect. calculate percentage of heart rate - based on training zones 60 to 80 percent easy - 90 - 100 hard sprint.
one rep max - weight training only - max weight you can lift in one full repitition
borg scale - percieved rate of exertion - scate 6 - 20. 6 no - 20 - extreamly hard. based on HR, breathing rate and sweat. percieved rate of exertion x 10 = working HR
provide starting point - strengths and weaknesses identified compare - effectivness of training programme.
must be valid and reliable
sit and reach - flexibility stand stork - balance
sergent jump - power illonise agility - agility
30m sprint - speed ruler drop - reaction time
multi stage fitness test - stamina tennis ball toss - coordination
abdominal curl - muscular endurace
hand dyamitor - strength
warm up/cool down
pulse raiser - stretching - skill related
physiological- increse HR, body temp, redistribute bllod to working muscles, warm muscles, prevent pulling increased elasticity, onset of blood lactic acid accumilation decreases.
psychological - controll axiety - optimal psychological preperation for the event - time for visualisation
cool down physiological - maintains cardiovascular functioning - capilaries dialated recieve o2 blood remove lactic acid - maintains veinous return mechanism prevent blood pooling - minimise onset of sorness - allow HR to return to resting. psychological - release tension -allow time to analyse performance - set goals for next time.
active - individual stretching whilst moving held by agonist muscle - high knees
passive - assisted stretching using another person or device
static - controlled and slow - still 15 - 30 secs
ballistic - fast jercky movements - bounce
continuous - no rest - steady - endurance - no skill tedious - good for pre season
interval/intermitent - alterniting periods of work and rest - high and low intensity - reps and sets
circuit - series of activities in a sequance - cant set specific stations
weight - sets and reps - high weight low reps - strength and size - low weight high reps - endurance
plyometrics - powerfull muscular contractions - eccentric contractions followed immediately by cocentric contractions - power.
mobility - flexibility - stretching muscle - all types of stretching