pe - long answer

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  • Created by: mary
  • Created on: 20-05-13 14:38

teaching styles

Command Style - authoritarian - no learner input teacher makes decisions. use when - dangerous situations - challenging groups - large group's - beginners - maturity of group - limited facilities.

Reciprocal - small group's each with different roles feedback to one another based of criteria set by teacher. - mixed ability group's - mature - develop communication. 

guided discovery - guidelines and outcome given find out how to do it. - students take ownership - creativity - time consuming. 

Problem solving - no teacher input - student ownership - trial and error - time consuming - creativity - mixed ability groups. 

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methods of presenting practice

aquiring and developing skill 

wholekinesthesis development -schema - time limit - skills that cant be brocken down. - simple skills 

Whole part whole - whole skill done first - then broken down into parts - perfected and improved - practice whole again - time consuming.

part - complex skills - low organised - practice just one part - eg legs in breaststroke. 

progressive part - breack down into parts and chain together - dance routine - A + B +C

conciderations - skill complexity, mature/ability of group, weather it can be brocken down. 

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ways of structuring practice time

massed - continuous repetitions of same skill - motivated expirienced groupe -descrite skill - high fitness - limited time.

distributed - some rests between skills - breaks maybe rest or another activity - begginers - less fitness and motivation - mantal rehersal in breaks 

variable - vary practice create a variety of situations open skills - changing enviroment - good for low motivation

mental - rehersal without physical movement - metal rehersal - see through minds eye - good for injured players 

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methods of guidance

visual - image of skill - demonstration, video - good for begginers - create mental image. 

verbal - speech to develope skill - cue words trigger focus points - feedback at end - help selective attention

manual/machanical - physically moving limb or body to correct position - use of aid physically restricted so only correct movement achieved. 

conciderations - skill complexity - ability - enviroment - maturity 

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types of feedback

possitive - correct movement - reinforcment - eg. praise from coach 

negative - withdrawl of negative feedback when carried out well 

internal - from within eg kinesthesis 

external - from the outside eg coach 

knowledge of performance - how well it was exicuted - how felt 

knowlledge of result - how youv doen eg. time in race, points scored

terminal - after performance - when its finished 

concurrent - during performance 

immediate - straight away 

delayed - after eg. next training session 


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considerations when planning a training session to

- ability 

- facilities 

-motivation 

-fitness level 

- coaches expirience 

-time 

-safety 

-task

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principles of training

SPORT 

specific - relivant to activity and individual

progression - training must gradually progress in order to improve - overload 

overload - work harder to increase training load - FITT frequancy, intensity, time and type 

reversibility - if training stops you will loose fitness, a third of the rate it was gained 

teduim - boredom - must be focused interested and motivated - variety 

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calculating working intensities

karvonon principle - training zones - max HR (heart rate) - heart rate range. 220 - age - max HR this is generally not everyone same height ect. calculate percentage of heart rate - based on training zones 60 to 80 percent easy - 90 - 100 hard sprint. 

one rep max - weight training only -  max weight you can lift in one full repitition 

borg scale - percieved rate of exertion - scate 6 - 20. 6 no - 20 - extreamly hard. based on HR, breathing rate and sweat. percieved rate of exertion x 10 = working HR

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fitness testing

provide starting point - strengths and weaknesses identified compare - effectivness of training programme. 

must be valid and reliable                              

sit and reach - flexibility                         stand stork - balance 

sergent jump - power                             illonise agility - agility

30m sprint - speed                                 ruler drop - reaction time

multi stage fitness test - stamina            tennis ball toss - coordination 

abdominal curl - muscular endurace

hand dyamitor - strength  

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warm up/cool down

pulse raiser - stretching - skill related

physiological- increse HR, body temp, redistribute bllod to working muscles, warm muscles, prevent pulling increased elasticity, onset of blood lactic acid accumilation decreases.

psychological - controll axiety - optimal psychological preperation for the event - time for visualisation 

cool down physiological - maintains cardiovascular functioning - capilaries dialated recieve o2 blood remove lactic acid - maintains veinous return mechanism prevent blood pooling - minimise onset of sorness - allow HR to return to resting. psychological - release tension -allow time to analyse performance - set goals for next time.

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stretching

active - individual stretching whilst moving held by agonist muscle - high knees 

passive - assisted stretching using another person or device 

static - controlled and slow - still 15 - 30 secs 

ballistic - fast jercky movements - bounce 

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training methods

continuous - no rest - steady - endurance - no skill tedious - good for pre season 

interval/intermitent - alterniting periods of work and rest - high and low intensity - reps and sets 

circuit - series of activities in a sequance - cant set specific stations 

weight - sets and reps - high weight low reps - strength and size - low weight high reps - endurance 

plyometrics - powerfull muscular contractions - eccentric contractions followed immediately by cocentric contractions - power. 

mobility - flexibility - stretching muscle - all types of stretching 

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