Roles of the Active Participant:
Progression in sport:
* Foundation - students at school taking part in sport
* Participation - people taking part in sport in their free time
* Performance - performer recieving coaching and entering local competitions
* Elite - top class performers taking part in international competitions
An organizer oversees an event and arranges performers, venue, equiptment and spectators for the event. They bring together all the main ingredients for the event.
Coaches influence individuals or groups, they are specialists in an activity and are responsible for preparing a performer in correct technique, physicality, skiills etc.
Age - in some sports you need to be a certain age to compete in order to mature physically and mentally. Age is also important for balanced competition in order for competition to be safe and fair. Older people may not be able to take part in the demands of some physical activity.
Disability - it can be physical, mental, temporary or permenant and can affect participation in physical activity. Many sports centre have wheelchair access, adapted sports facilities and specialized sport sessions for disabled people. The media is also increasingly covering disabled sport to raise awareness of it.
Gender - both males and females are encouraged to participate in most sports, in general, each sex competes seperately due to differnces in physique to allow fair play.
Physique - height, weight, body fat, muscle mass and bone size all influence performancein a certain sport therefore have to be controlled.
Somatotypes and Demands of Performance:
Endomorph - fat, roundness of shape, short limbs, small bones and wide hips. Participate in sport such as sumo wrestling and weight lifters.
Mesomorph - high muscle mass, large trunk, heavy chest, broad shoulders and narrow hips. Participate in sport such as rugby and tennis.
Ectomorph - lean, delicate body, small bones, narrow shoulders and his. Participate in sports such as sprinting and high jumping.
Physical demands of performance causes fatigue affecting performance by reducing mucle strength, speed, coordination, reaction time, agility and balance.
Mental demands of performance affects skills and performance. Reaching tedium can lead to lack of motivation and stress can cause the performer to worry about performance.
Weather - unsuitable weather can affect particular outdoor sports
Cold - hands and feet need to be protected in the cold in order to participate and perform to your best ability
Terrain - the terrain affects the sport participation and performance
Humidity - humidity affects the rate at which sweat evaporates and can cause dehydration. This affects performance levels
Heat - affects the amount of sweat produced and can lead to dehydration
Altitude - there are low levels of oxygen at high altitude which can affect cardiovascular performance if you are not used to it
A warm up should be performed before any physical activity and should be relevant to the sport you will be doing. There are many reasons for warming up; increases your heart rate, increases body temperature, gradually moves muscles and joints, it mentally prepares you and introduces skills to be used in the sport. Firstly you should perform light aerobic work to gradually increase your heart rate, then you should stretch your muscles gradually increasing flexibility and finally you should perform basic skills or drills used in the sport you will perform.
A warm down should also always be undertaken after physical activity to prevent injury and allow the body to gradually return to its resting state. Gentle stretching should be performed to stop the build up of lactic acid in the muscles which will also prevent DOMS. This will allow muscles to slowly cool down after activity.
When competing or performing any physical activity you should always follow safety precautions in order for it to be safe and fair. Safety precautions include:
- balanced competition in weight, height, age and experience
- following the rules, skills and techniques of the game
- wearing the correct clothing that is well fitting and allows adequate movement
- using the correct equiptment for that sport
- following the code of conduct for your sport .e.g shaking hands at the end of a match
Aerobic respiration is respiration when oxygen is present. For aerobic respiration we need a good supply of oxygen and glucose to the tissues and muscles so we can go on for long periods of time provided the intensity is not too great. Aerobic respiration is normally used for activity that goes on for longer than 60 seconds.
glucose + oxygen >>>>>>>>>> energy + carbon dioxide + water
Anaerobic respiration is respiration without oxygen. This type of respiration is used in activities that only neeed short bursts of energy such as athletic field events. Anaerobic respiration can only supply energy for a short amount of time, if it continues over a minute then energy is released by breaking down carbohydrates. Lactic acid is a mild poison produced in the muscles during strenuous activity, if it builds up in the muscles it will cause fatigue and cramp.
glucose >>>>>>>>>> energy + lactic acid
Red blood cells are concave discs that contain haemoglobin. They carry oxygen to the tissues and cells that need it to form oxyhaemoglobin and they transport nutrients and waste products. They are produced in your bone marrow and during exercise the blood increases in thickness as water is removed as waste.
White blood cells are part of the bodys defence against infection and disease. The main functions are to fight infection, repair damaged tissues after injury and destroy bacteria.
Platelets are small fragments of cells. They help the blood to clot at the site of a wound by producing a network or protein threads that caprture red blood cells to help it clot. This stops the bleeding and forms a scab.
Blood plasma contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The plasma is yellow and is 90% water, it makes up 55% of the volume of blood. During exercise hormones such as endorphins and adrenalin are produced and transported in the plasma. These hormones help performance in competition.
Heart Rate and Exercise:
At rest, heart rate slows down because it doesn't have to work as hard against gravity to circulate blood and is about 72 beats per minute however it varies. The heart rate increases when extra demands are made on the body and depends on the type of activity.
The heart rate needs to be raised to atleast 60% of the maximum heart rate to improve cardiovascular fitness. To work out maximum heart rate use this formula: 220 - age.
After exercise it takes time to get back to your resting heart rate called recovery time. A warm down can help the body gradually return to resting heart beat.
Effects of exercise include; heart rate increase, blood vessles dilate, blood pressure increases, oxygen and haemoglobin are transported to working muscles and waste products exit the body via pores and capillaries at the skins surface.
Effects of Exercise:
Aerobic training has many benefits on the circulatory system:
- stronger, bigger heart meaning it lasts longer and is more efficient
- lower resting and active heart rate so there is less stress on the heart
- can deliver oxygen to working muscles quicker
- reduced risk of heart and coronary artery disease
A persons pulse rate increases and decreases according to the activity undertaken. During exercise it helps the performer to monitor pulse rate because:
- ensures they are working to their full ability
- recovery rate after exercise reflects fitness levels
- varying pulse rate can link with using the principle of overload
Recovering From Exercise:
Oxygen debt is a result of vigorous exercise and is due to insufficient amounts of oxygen going to the working muscles and so energy is released without oxygen. This results in lactic acid being built up in the working muscles causing fatigue so you can no longer perform at your best. Oxygen debt must be repayed.
The recovery process after exercise is very important in order to increase muscle proteins, strength and lactic aid threshold. Eating carbohydrates after exercise adds to energy stores and helps the muscle proteins to become restored which helps the repair of damaged tissue.
Leisure and Recreation:
Leisure time is the portion of the day that a person has when they are free of everyday duties. In this time a person may choose to participate in sport or physical activity for pleasure and enjoyment.
Recreation is an opportunity to relax away from your normal routine and actively pursue a healthy lifestyle. Recreational activities are non-competative which can increases general fitness, reduce stress and can be socially beneficial. Some examples of physical recreational activities are; aerobics, yoga, walking, cycling, pilates and dancing.
Outdoor recreation includes challenges in the natural environment such as climbing, horseriding, skiing, sailing, rowing etc.
Lifetime sports are activites that can be carried out throughout your life. These enable a person to work at their own pace, have knowledge of the sport, keep social contact, maintain fitness, keep their mind focused and want to do well.