Reductio ad absurdum
This form of argument attempts at proving that a statement is true by showing that the opposite of the statement is absolutely ridiculous. Or alternatively it proves that a statement is false by proving that its acceptance is absurd.
An example of this is:
Rocks have weight, otherwise we would see them floating in the air.
This is a form of DEDUCTION.
This form of reasoning observes all of the different explanations that there could be, and narrows down the possibilities. It reduces down the options until the simplest remains, and the simplest explanation is the best / most likely explanation.
This is is a form of INDUCTION
Argument of analogy
This involves looking for shared or similar attributes between two things. From this you can infer that they share some other property.
A cat and a lion are similar in the respect that they both have fur, tails, and paws.
A cat has been observed to have the further property of sharp teeth.
Therefore, Q probably has sharp teeth also.
This is a form of INDUCTION