Orgins of the Cold War 1945-55

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  • Created by: Holly
  • Created on: 02-06-13 17:19

Stalin's perspective

  • didn't trust west
  • determined build buffer zone - protect against further G attacks
  • WW2 26,000,000 died - Stalin more determined wouldn't happen again
  • Wn allies intervened Civil War 1928-19
  • suspected they'd encouraged Hitler in 1930s
  • GB & France turned down offer alliance + USSR 1939
  • allies delayed opening second front until 1944
  • Stalin very suspicious
  • believed they'd wanted USSR destroy itself fighting Geermany alone
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West's perspective

  • believed Stalin wanted oppose communism upon Europe
  • he didn't allow Red Army intervene Warsaw Uprising to help Poles
  • he set up communist gov. in Poland
  • no allowed free elections in En Europe
  • didn't declare war on Japan

Why prepared to trust Stalin?

  • 1945 needed support, in case necessary to invade Japan
  • Roosevelt prepared believe promises
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Yalta 1945

  • February 1945; Rossevelt, Churchill, Stalin, Sn USSR
  • agreed divide germany 4 zones (USA, USSR, GB, Fr.)
  • Berlin divided into 4 zones
  • Poland given land in west from Germany, loose land in East to USSR, Stalin aggreed allow 'London Poles' allowed to join 'Lublin Poles'
  • USSR declare war on Japan 3 months after end of war with Germany
  • STALIN PROMISED ALLOW FREE ELECTIONS IN En EUROPE COUNTRIES occupied by USSR

Roosevelt believed Stalin keep promises, Red Army needed Vs Japan so prepared leave En Europe under USSR

Roosevelt died 12th April 1945

Truman, more hard line, had atomic bomb, no longer rely on Red Army Vs Japan

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Potsdam 1945

  • July/August 1945; Atlee, Truman, Stalin
  • germany & berlin divided 4 zones
  • Nazi party dissolved & war criminals tried & punished
  • free elections in germany, freedom of speech, a free press
  • germany pay reparations, most go USSR (suffered most)
  • all allies take part UN

Disagreements:

  • Truman tried to force USSR allow free elections in En Europe countries occupied
  • Stalin angry not told about atomic bomb
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Effects of dropping atomic bomb

  • 6th August 1945 on Hiroshima, 78,000 killed outright
  • three days later, 9th August 1945, Nagasaki further 74,000 killed, Japan qiuickly surrendered
  • increase tention between superpowers
  • Stalin angry not told at Potsdam about atomic bomb
  • USSR developed own atomic bomb 1949
  • armed conflict between two superpowers MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)
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Iron Curtain

  • Churchill's Iron Curtain speech 1946 in US

What

  • border between east & west in Europe
  • became thousand mile fence cutting off Communist countries

Why:

  • Stalin wanted buffer zone protect USSR another German invasion
  • didn't trust west, had invaded russia 1919, delayed opening second front 1944
  • Germany'd invaded Russia twice in 20th century, wanted Germany remain weak
  • trying prevent Wn influence reaching east, & refugees leaving east for west
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