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Breakdown of the Grand Alliance:

Reasons for tensions of superpowers:

Soviet sphere of influence:
Beliefs: History: Events:
Geographical area surrounding Russia, as the
USSR `liberated these areas after WW2 they Russia was In 1918 US tried to Yalta/Potsdam = open
stayed and maintained control and influence to communist and ruled…

Page 2

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Breakdown of the Grand Alliance:
Buffer Zone:
Iron curtain:
Churchill's speech: 1949
Twenty million Russians died during the Second
Described the border between the democratic countries World War, so Stalin said he wanted a buffer zone of
of the west and communist countries of the east as an friendly…

Page 3

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Soviet Control:

Country Date Method
Albania 1945 Communists immediately took power.
Bulgaria 1945 In the 1945 elections, a Communist-
led coalition was elected, but the
Communist control in the satellite states:
Communists executed the non-
Ruthlessly used the police and army to stamp on any
Romania 1947 In the…

Page 4

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Berlin Blockade:

The post war conferences agreed to divide Germany up into 4 zones but the aim was to reunite the zones as soon as possible. The USSR was opposed to the gradual
rebuilding of West Germany and tried to disrupt it by blockading Berlin.

Trizonia: 1948 Blockade plan: 1948-49…

Page 5

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Soviet control in Hungary:

The Hungarian uprising: Control 1945-55:

Causes: Hungarian coal, oil and wheat were shipped to Russia while Hingarian citizens were
deprived of food
Secret speech created hopes of reform but nothing
Non-communist political parties were abolished
Russian officials controleed the government police and army
Bad harvests/fuel…

Page 6

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The Berlin wall:

Geneva summit: May 1959 The Problem:

Lay groundwork for K to meet E Many Germans crossed over from the East to west of Berlin so
the East suffered a brain drain and a loss of skilled workers
Camp David: September 1959
The USSR felt it had…

Page 7

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The Cuban Missile crisis: Naval blockade:
USA, USSR and Cuba- Deteriorating relationships:
The US decide in a naval blockade as their
Before 1959 the US and Cuba had a close The Bay of Pigs: 1961
response to the nuclear discovery
economic and geographical relationship, they ran
Plan: The USSR says…

Page 8

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Soviet Control in Czechoslovakia:

Alexander Dubcek: Causes of the Prague spring: Prague spring:

Became leader in January 1968 The policy of détente encouraged the In April 1968, Dubcek's government announced
Was a good friend of soviet leader uprising. Romania had also broken free of an Action Plan for what it…

Page 9

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Causes of Détente:
The USSR was struggling economically with
keeping up with the US in the arms race
America was also suffering economically with Helsinki agreement: 1975
SALT 1: 1972
inflation and poor living conditions In 1971, the Warsaw pact countries proposed a
The Cuban missile crisis was a…

Page 10

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Soviet invasion of Afghanistan:

The Carter Doctrine: January 1980

Declaration that the USA would not allow soviet
aggression in the Middle East.
Formed an alliance with China and Israel to
1978: the Kabul revolution: the Afghan royal
support the muslim rebels ­ CIA supplied them
family was overthrown and…


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