The cold war

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  • Created on: 04-06-16 14:53
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Breakdown of the Grand Alliance:
Reasons for tensions of superpowers:
Soviet sphere of influence:
Beliefs: History: Events:
Geographical area surrounding Russia, as the
USSR `liberated these areas after WW2 they Russia was In 1918 US tried to Yalta/Potsdam = open
stayed and maintained control and influence to communist and ruled destroy the Russian disagreements
impose communism by a dictator revolution Atomic bomb suspicion
USA was a capitalist Stalin signed a Nazi- USSR: rigged elections
Democracy which Soviet pact in 1939 Churchill: iron curtain
valued freedom speech
Conferences:
Teheran: Yalta: Potsdam:
Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt Attlee, Truman, Stalin
Agreements: Agreements: Agreements:
Agreed to a second front to aid Germany would pay reparations De-nazification
USSR in WW2 Nazi parties banned and war criminals tried Arguments about the details of the
Allies agreed to soviet sphere of Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 boundaries between the zones.
influence to give them security zones: USA, USSR, Britain and France
Disagreements:
Russia would help against Japan when
Disagreements:
Germany was defeated. Reparations, USSR wanted more
Opposed Churchill's invasion of the Freed countries could choose their own Atomic bomb- used by Truman in Japan,
Balkans as it was to stop the spread government done behind USSR's back (show of
of communism Poland could be run under USSR influence strength)
Stalin wanted huge reparations but more democratically USSR wanted to impose a communist
from Germany but Churchill and gov. in Poland- Stalin had arrested the
Disagreements:
Roosevelt thought it should be non-communist leaders of Poland.
rebuilt Britain and US reluctant to allow Poland to
be communist

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Breakdown of the Grand Alliance:
Buffer Zone:
Iron curtain:
Stalin:
Churchill's speech: 1949
Twenty million Russians died during the Second
Described the border between the democratic countries World War, so Stalin said he wanted a buffer zone of
of the west and communist countries of the east as an friendly states around Russia to make sure that
iron curtain Russia could never be invaded again.
Stalin called Churchill's speech a "declaration of war".…read more

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Soviet Control:
Country Date Method
Albania 1945 Communists immediately took power.
Bulgaria 1945 In the 1945 elections, a Communist-
led coalition was elected, but the
Communist control in the satellite states:
Communists executed the non-
Communists.
Ruthlessly used the police and army to stamp on any
Romania 1947 In the 1945 elections, a Communist-
opposition
led coalition was elected to power.…read more

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Berlin Blockade:
The post war conferences agreed to divide Germany up into 4 zones but the aim was to reunite the zones as soon as possible. The USSR was opposed to the gradual
rebuilding of West Germany and tried to disrupt it by blockading Berlin.…read more

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Soviet control in Hungary:
The Hungarian uprising: Control 1945-55:
Causes: Hungarian coal, oil and wheat were shipped to Russia while Hingarian citizens were
deprived of food
Secret speech created hopes of reform but nothing
Non-communist political parties were abolished
happened
Russian officials controleed the government police and army
Bad harvests/fuel shortages led to riots in Budapest on 23rd
Cominform began a reign of terror, executing popular political leaders and their
October 1956
supporters
Khrushchev withdrew the red army from Hungary on
Nagy's request
Nagy announced…read more

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The Berlin wall:
Summits:
Geneva summit: May 1959 The Problem:
Lay groundwork for K to meet E Many Germans crossed over from the East to west of Berlin so
the East suffered a brain drain and a loss of skilled workers
Camp David: September 1959
The USSR felt it had to force the west out of Berlin due to the
6 month ultimatum withdrawn and furthers damage it was causing
summits decided The USSR then demanded withdrawal
Eisenhower and Khrushchev They declared Berlin as East…read more

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The Cuban Missile crisis: Naval blockade:
USA, USSR and Cuba- Deteriorating relationships:
The US decide in a naval blockade as their
Before 1959 the US and Cuba had a close The Bay of Pigs: 1961
response to the nuclear discovery
economic and geographical relationship, they ran
Plan: The USSR says it will ignore this blockade
90% of the phone and electricity supply, 50% of
and see it as an act of war
railways, 40% of all sugar production and owned
The USA had tried and…read more

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Soviet Control in Czechoslovakia:
Alexander Dubcek: Causes of the Prague spring: Prague spring:
Became leader in January 1968 The policy of détente encouraged the In April 1968, Dubcek's government announced
Was a good friend of soviet leader uprising. Romania had also broken free of an Action Plan for what it called a new model of
leonid Brezhnev Russian control, and was improving relations socialism - it removed state controls over
A communist leader who supported with the West. industry and allowed freedom of speech.…read more

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Causes of Détente:
Detente:
The USSR was struggling economically with
keeping up with the US in the arms race
America was also suffering economically with Helsinki agreement: 1975
SALT 1: 1972
inflation and poor living conditions In 1971, the Warsaw pact countries proposed a
The Cuban missile crisis was a scare and caused Superpowers agreed to limit the conference with NATO to discuss European
both sides to take a step back from the brink number of nuclear weapons they had Security.…read more

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Soviet invasion of Afghanistan:
The Carter Doctrine: January 1980
Declaration that the USA would not allow soviet
aggression in the Middle East.…read more

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