Organic Tests

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Bromine Water

Details:

  • Aqueous bromine
  • orange solution

Functional group identified:

  • Carbon to carbon double bond C=C

Positive Result:

  • Orange solution to transparent solution

Negative Result:

  • Stays orange
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Acidified Potassium Dichromate

Details:

  • Acidified with H2SO4
  • Orange solution
  • Heat
  • K2Cr2O7

Functional group identified:

  • Identifies primary and secondary alcohols, not tertiary alcohols

Positive Result:

  • Orange solution to green solution

Negative Result:

  • Stays orange, as tertiary alcohols have no change
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Tollen's Reagent

Details:

  • [Ag(NH4)2],+
  • Colourless solution
  • NH3
  • NaOH
  • AgNO3

Functional group identified:

  • Aldehyde

Positive Result:

  • Silver mirror precipitate

Negative Result:

  • Remains colourless
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Fehling's Solution

Details:

  • Cu,2+ ion solution
  • Blue solution
  • Gently warm

Functional group identified:

  • Aldehyde

Positive Result:

  • Brick-red precipitate

Negative Result:

  • Remains orange
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Sodium Hydrogencarbonate

Details:

  • White
  • Solid

Functional group identified:

  • Carboxylic acid

Positive Result:

  • Fizzing CO2 given off
  • Colourless solution

Negative Result:

  • No reaction
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Hydrolysis Followed by Acidified AgNO3

Details:

  • Warm
  • With Naoh
  • Add AgNO3

Functional group identified:

  • Haloalkane

Positive Result:

  • Cl: White precipitate
  • Br: Cream precipitate
  • I: Yellow precipitate

Negative Result:

  • No reaction
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Hydrolysis

Details:

  • Add hydrogen

Functional group identified:

  • Acyl chloride

Positive Result:

  • White fumes of HCl

Negative Result:

  • No reaction
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