A Level Chemistry: Further Physical and Organic Chemistry

•Kinetics •Equilibria •Acids and Bases •Nomenclature and Isomerism in Organic Chemistry •Compounds containing the Carbonyl Group •Aromatic Chemistry •Amines •Amino Acids •Polymers •Structure Determination

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  • Created by: Jhyzone
  • Created on: 29-09-10 12:28

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Further Physical and Organic
Chemistry…read more

Slide 2

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Contents
· Kinetics
· Equilibria
· Acids and Bases
· Nomenclature and Isomerism in Organic
Chemistry
· Compounds containing the Carbonyl Group
· Aromatic Chemistry
· Amines
· Amino Acids
· Polymers
· Structure Determination…read more

Slide 3

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Kinetics
· The rate for the following reaction:
· A+BC+D
· Is given by the following equation
· Rate =k[A]n[B]m
· The larger the value of k the faster the rate of reaction.
· Increasing the temperature increases the value of k
· m and n are the orders of reaction with respect to A and B
· If the order of reaction is zero the reactant does not effect the rate of
reaction.
· If the order of reaction is 1 doubling the concentration of that
reactant doubles the rate of reaction.
· If the order of reaction is 2 doubling the concentration of that
reactant quadruples the rate of reaction.
· The units of a rate constant vary according to the actual rate
equation for the reaction.…read more

Slide 4

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Equilibria
· You still need to know the information you learnt
for AS.
· The equilibrium law states for the following
reaction:
­ aA + bB Â cC + dD
[C]c [D]d
Kc =
[A]a[B]b
· If the reaction involves gases pressures are
used instead of concentration and the
equilibrium constant is called Kp…read more

Slide 5

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Equilibria
[C]c [D]d
Kc = [A]a[B]b
· Kc can only be changed by changing
temperature.
· In an exothermic reaction Kc decreases with
increasing temperature, this means less
products are formed.
· Increasing the concentration of one of the
reactants does not change the value of Kc but
does mean that the concentration of products
must also increase.…read more

Slide 6

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Acids and Bases
· A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor
· A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor
· pH is a measure of the strength of acid
· pH = -log10[H+], where [ ] represents the
concentration in mol dm-3.
· A related concept is the ionic product of water,
Kw
· Kw = [H+][OH-] = 10-14 mol2 dm-6 at 25°C
· Note that in water [H+]=[OH-] therefore pH of
water is 7…read more

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