OCR Geography B: Case Studies


Aid project in an LEDC: The Hunger Project -Senega

Aim and Objuectives: The Hunger project has developed an Epicentre strategy which aims to unit 5,000 to 15,000 people in a cluster of villages to be able to create a dynamic centre where communities are mobilised for action to meet their basic needs. Helps the men and the women to work together in order to develop a plan and vision which will unlock a local capacity for change.

  • Helps make communities less dependant on aid but more independant and confident to improve.
  • Women are able to have equal leadership with men and to be key economic members of society. For example, women run for local office and are elected.
  • Literacy rates are improved as women are taught how to read, write and count.
  • Communities are large enough and confident enough to successfully demand services such as roads and electricity.
  • Education on contraception and medical health is provided. Infant Mortality rates dropped.
  • Farmers/people working in agriculture are able to sell their surplus which means people now have an income. 
  • Both girls and boys are now attending schools near their homes and can access a library.
  • There is now a vibrant rural economy as men begin returning to the community. 
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Aid project in an LEDC: The Hunger Project -Senega


  • The Epicenter project is socio-economically sustainable because it paves the way for the Senegal community to be self-reliant instead of depending on aid.
  • It is economically sustainable because the primary resources for the strategy come from the local people themselves by making existing local government resources more effective.
  • It is also environmentally sustainable because people in local communities learn composting and small-scale, environmentally sound irrigation technologies such as drip irrigation.
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Changes in UK Steel Industry Location: MEDC

Change 1:

  • Raw materials such as Iron ore, coal and limestone have been exhausted because they have been used up in large quanities. As a result of this, steel manufacturers have to import the steel in large quanities which causes the price of transporting the raw materials to increase. As a result of this the price of steel increases. Consequently, steel manufacturing plants have had to locate near the coast, which helps decrease the cost of importing steel. As a result of this inland steel works have like those in Bilston closed.

Change 2:

  • Steel factories locate at deep water ports because bulk carrier ships can dock there carrying more heavy raw materials than usual. This causes the cost of raw materials to decrease so the cost of manufacturing steel decreases. As a result there will be increased demand in steel made in the UK. Consequently inland steel works like those in Bilston can't compete so they get closed. 
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Changes in UK Steel Industry Location: MEDC

Change 3:

  • Technology has changed which has resulted in the development of integrated steel works (all processes linked to making steel take place in one steel making plant), such as, Port Talbot in Wales. Consequently large areas of flat land are needed for these steel plants hence they tend to be by the coast. As a result of this, integrated steel works help to speed up the manufacturing of steel. Therefore the coast of steel production decreases. Consequently, inland steel works like those in Bilston can't compete and get closed. 

Other Changes:

  • If the demand for steel falls then steel plants get closed. For example, if a car factory closes.
  • In 1986 the government rationalized the industry . This means inland plants like those in Bilston were closed. This was because they were not able to import and export steel easily.
  • Other countries could produce steel for cheaper prices. 
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Steel Industry in Brazil: LEDC


  • New super port built on the coast of Rio de Janeiro to deal with the export of steel. This has resulted in the construction of a super highway in order to transport raw materials. In additon, it has also encouraged other businesses and factories to locate there. As a result of this, people are migrating from rural areas to shanty towns in hopes of finding employment. This has been made possibly mainly though foreign investment from the Chinese (China is the world's fastes growing economy).
  • This has made Brazil one of the fastest idustrialising LEDCs in the world.

Social impacts:

  • Tribal existence has been threatened by the deforestation occuring in rain forrests. Through the illegal extraction of timbre meaning they have lost half their territory.
  • $30million US Dollars worth of ore is generated each day creating 50% profit.
  • Children and families are having to work in dirty and miserable conditions. 
  • Decrease in demand for Brazilian labour.
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Steel Industry in Brazil: LEDC

Economic Impacts:

  • Steel mill has increased overall investment.
  • Hospitals, schools and housing ect are slowly being created. 
  • 40% of the steel will be exported to Europe. In addition, 50% profit is generated.
  • Strong trading relationship between Brazil and China. 
  • Increase in Chinese shops.
  • Profits made by Brazilian companies decrease because of competition from China.
  • The South East Region contains 40% of Brazil's economic wealth.
  • MNC (Multinational companies) such as Nestle and Sanyo have been attracted to the South East region of Brazil. 

Environmental Impacts:

  • Illegal charcoal ovens have been set up to produce charcole for the mill. Resulting in deforestation. Consequently leading to Global warming as large amounts of CO2 are released.
  • Tribes are being forced to live on protected reserves which are decreasing in numbers and size.
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MNC (Multinational Company): Nike in Vietnam

Social Advantages:

  • People's QL is improved as they earn wages.
  • Improvements in local services such as hospitals and schools.
  • Nike has the potential to improve working conditions within their factories.

Social Disadvantages:

  • Poor working conditions, long hours and low pay.
  • Local culture is lost as the Nike brand takes over.

Economic Advantages:

  • Employment is created in LEDCs. Such as Vietnam which has 34 plants.
  • Pays higher wages than local companies in LEDCs.
  • Exporting Nike products encourages the growth of the economy. 
  • Encourages local companies to copy their high standards or production.
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MNC (Multinational Company): Nike in Vietnam

Economic Disadvantages:

  • Very often there is no trade unions which results in the workforce being exploited (beaten).
  • Long hours with no toilet breaks and little food allowed.
  • Children are often found working in factories.
  • Workforce is paid very little wages.
  • The demultiplier effect can take place is Nike finds a cheaper location than Vietnam.
  • Profits return to shareholders in American which means locals don't benefit., 
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