Observing the sky
Sideral day- is the time taken for a star to return to the same position in the sky, takes 23 hours 56b minutes.
Solar day- is the time taken for the sun to appear at the same position in the sky, takes 24 hours.
There different because Earth orbits sun aswell as own axis, it orbits the sun in same direction so Earth has to spin more the 360 to appear in same position.
Moon- Takes 25 hours to appear in the same postion.
Stars- the Earth moves around the sun, the direction we face changes slightly everyday, so we see a slightly different patch of stars each night.
Eclipses and the moon
Moon refects light from the sun.
Full moon when the whole surface is lit up and facing Earth.
New moon when the dark half is facing us.
Lunar eclipse- When the moon orbits it sometimes passes into Earths shadow, Earth blocks sunlight from moon so no light is reflected. Total lunar eclipse is no direct sunlight, though moon isn't fully in the Earths shadown so its a partial lunar eclipse.
Solar eclipse- moon by chance is the right size + distance away that when it passes sun and Earth it can block out sun, from some parts of Earth sun is totally blocked, from many places it will only be partial solar ecipse.
Moon orbits the sun at a slight angle so most of the time Sun, moon, Earth dont line up.