NIXON

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 21-05-13 18:49

NIXON

  • extreme anti-communist
  • Esisenhower VP 1953-61
  • exceptional apprenticeship foreign affairs, travel abroad
  • thorough education problem Viet
  • want help French & air strike & small atomic bombs
  • if sending US boys only way stop communism expansion take 'politically unpopular position' and do it
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REUBLICAN FOREIGN POLICY EXPERT 61-68

  • K beat N, no political office 8 years
  • kepy in news 'victory is essential to the survival of freedom'
  • N urge J to do more
  • approve more ground troops 'US cannot afford another defeat in Asia'
  • victory= 2 independent Viet states (1 comm)
  • 1965 onwards repub candidate 
  • accuse deomcratic J getting everything wrong 'bogged down in long, costly war'
  • no new ideas
  • advocate more bombing
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REPUBLICAN CANDIDATE 1967-8

  • 1967- last man likely advocate withdrawal
  • criticised anti-war protestors minority

TET & VIETNAMISATION

  • shocked, turning point
  • need change US policy
  • Vietnamisation SV forces& gov take responsibility
  • US forces withdrawn while ARVN built up
  • stop talking escalation now= 'peace with honour'
  • 'new leadership will end the war'

COULD THEIR SURVIVE WITHOUT US?

  • prob genuinely believe he could
  • help of a change in Americn aid & change of diplomatic direction
  • US diversify methods- dip leverage USSR
  • no longer monolithic communist bloc
  • no more confrontation, now negotiation
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JOHNSON & PEACE TALKS 1968

  • Paris peace talks
  • bomb halt= coatilition Saigon gov
  • hawks reject 'nonsese' 'peace with honour'
  • Oct 1968- break through Paris PT's
  • Hanoi offer Thieu power if coalition gov
  • Nixon dislike, fear jepordise him beating Hubert Humphrey
  • N privately encourage Thieu not go, Thieu reject idea coaltion gov
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COLD WARRIOR CHANGED

OPPORTUNIST

  • N change position but no transformation, political opportunist
  • advise Thieu not go PT's ensure J not achieve 'peace with honour'

TET

  • conclude war not going well
  • US need withdraw ASAP
  • SV fight and win own battle

NIXON'S AIMS & METHODS

  • peace with honour, need Thieu in power, strong position
  • SV= independent state
  • Vietnamisation
  • improve relations with USSR and China

SINO SOVIET SPLIT

  • ruin threat monolothic commuinst bloc
  • play off 2 rivals, isolate Hanoi
  • cold war changed

PEACEMAKER

  • political impact 'world peacemaker' appeal to N
  • get re-elected 1972
  • improve relations China & USSR= success
  • intelligent, ambitious end war
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NIXON AND KISSINGER

  • N= foreign policy important
  • Kissinger agree

KISSINGER

  • jewish refugee Nazi G
  • arrive US teenager
  • Harvard professor 
  • specialised international relations
  • travel widely & learnt quickly
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KISSINGER

POLITICALLY AMBITOUS

  • ambitious, tried attach to Ken family (failed)
  • 1968 offer help candidates
  • despised Nixon 'most dangerous' candidate
  • desire power= compromise

K & POLITICAL POWER

  • in N admin pretend innocent in vicious political jungle
  • treat staf like mushrooms- trodden on, kept in dark
  • Believe FP too complex for them
  • N agree= problem & weakness, didn't explain policies so didn't gain support
  • REALPOLITIK- little regard for morals = shocking
  • K contempt conscientous objectors
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K & SECRETARY OF STATE ROGERS

  • K & N favour traditional diplomatic machinery
  • N chose friend William Rogers
  • Rogers knew little on foreign policy, said advantageous to ensure control over WH
  • 1st pile FP paperwork 'you don't expect me to read all of this, do you?'
  • K & R relationship= tempestuous
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NIXON & K Relationship

  • great deal time together
  • K= more influential as time went on
  • K= treated with upmost respect by media occassions subverted N's intentions but got away with it
  • 2 powerful men= FP led careless of 'larger moral issues'
  • N= called it MACHIAVELLIAN 'end justifies the means'
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VIETNAM PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

  • 'I'm not going to end up like LBJ' 'I'm going to stop that war fast'
  • honour require Thieu remain in power
  • N hope korean style settlement- 2 separate states
  • 1953 Eisenhower achieve Korea pressure on USSR & China
  • N tempt Soviet's promise agreements and trade, China= normalisation of diplomatic relations
  • 'Madman Theory'  Hanoi think N capable of anything
  • inaugaral address 'The greatest honour history can bestow is the title of a peacemaker'
  • US need peace at home and vietnam
  • presidential inaugural parade burned US flags, spat on police
  • 1969- bring peace to vietnam and US
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1969-1971

  • persuade Hanoi Thieu remain in power (agree)
  • use diplomatic & military pressure settlement Thieu reasonable chance of survival
  • US not waste time & efforts in Vietnam
  • Us split- right-wing & left-wing opposition
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MILITARY PRESSURE 1969

  • comm launch offensive SV- rolling thunder & escalate troops not worked
  • March 1969- bomb Cambodia & COSVN fail
  • K= blockades invade NV, deliberately leaked newspapers 'madman'
  • Hanoi slow down fighting

3 solutions:

1. Madman

2. Vietnamisation 

3. Bombing

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1970

  • withdraw 150,000 extend war Laos & Cambodia
  • demonstrate US power, counter Saigon pessimism for withdrawal of troops, intimidate Hanoi, better peace terms
  • escalate air offiensive Jan 1970
  • Feb NV launch offensive Laos, 
  • 30,000 Us/ARVN sent to Laos not encounter enemy- disappeared
  • US anti-war protests, pressure withdrawal Laos
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1971

  • US morale plummeted
  • 18 y/os sent in, US 'finished' helping corupt Siagon gov
  • warnes West Front leaders they would be leading drug abuse men
  • 'No Gook Ever Called Me A Nigger'
  • N determine not 1st pres lose war- escalate military offensives
  • JCS= PAVN fight ARVN be enticed out& US air bomb and destroy
  • raise morale
  • N gave go ahead
  • Laird- WestM not send 4 divisions in to do that, ARVN only 1- N & K ignore
  • Lam Son Offensive 1971- PAVN upper hand, over 1/2 ARVN died 2 weeks
  • US TV show ARVN fight place on plane out Laos
  • K angry Thieu refuse send troops
  • 3 years Vietnamisation failed- no progress on military front
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DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE 69-71

  • 1969- secreat Washington- Hanoi peace talks, H like isolate Saigon
  • May 1969- N offer Thieu remain in power, US troops withdraw simultaneously, N hint US about withdraw, ARVN ready alone- Hanoi= unimpressed
  • US willing accept SV election results, Han do same or US do something drastic
  • Kiss sent Nov 1st deadline
  • Han insist had no troops in SV, thieu must give way coalition gov
  • little progress
  • N go to Moscow Soviets
  • promise detenteexchange 'linkage' warned hem not reject trade & arms offers
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1970

  • want US out 1972
  • leave pro-american govs in SV 1972, C & Laos
  • Han reasle US POWs
  • 'mad bomber'
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1971

  • linkage may work
  • agreements USSR & Chinainsist Han not urge Thieu's removal
  • May N offer date out by, H stop sending troops SV, observe ceasefire, guarantee territorial integrity SV, C & Laos, Thieu remain in power, POWs released
  • 3 years still nothing
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HOME FRONT PROBLEMS

N's TACTICS KEEP HOME FRONT QUIET:

  • series US withdrawals start June 1969
  • timed announcements difuse opposition- September 1969 anti-war activists & protests- N announce 60,000 removal
  • K says US will want more and more, N=little choice
  • most effected= male college students, N ajust draft so older students less hard hit
  • temporarily reduce protests
  • 71% approval rating
  • try actions secret: cambodia bombing (1969) came out 1970 leak, swear internal wiretapped 
  • kept home front speeces quiet- Nov 1969 'silent majority'
  • not always truthful- April 1970 said Us respect Cambodia neutrality 5 years 'clean up operation not an invasion'
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PROTESTS 1969/70

  • N claim minority
  • 1970- campus uproar moratorium took streets major citits, millions middle age/class VC flags
  • N drop 1st Nov ultimatum
  • 14-16 Nov 1/4 mil peaceful protest Washington, candles
  • May 1970= Kent state 4 dead
  • N= troops out by June
  • NYC= 100,000 pro=nixon activists
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CONGRESSIONAL DOUBTS 1971

  • N rating fell 32%
  • Congress question ally Thieu
  • president election Oct 1971- only candidate Thieu
  • some senators try and halt aid SV until democratic election

Nixon= under pressure

fail gain domestic support

increasingly emotional, vengeful, suspicious

Camobida Rogers= leak, had him wiretapped

really was Hanoi

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1972 GETTING RE-ELECTED

  • early 1972 air offensive= failing
  • Hanoi spring offensve
  • USSR & Hanoi pressure H to settle, N out with honour and Thieu remain a while
  • Han not want face 'superbly' equipped ARVN
  • PAVN offensive March 1972- tanks USSR
  • ARVN 'crumbled' 1972
  • N Vietnamisation= discreditted and election
  • N= furious NV & USSR
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DEFEAT NOT AN OPTION

  • K even if PAVN won while US pulling out N still get credit for ending war
  • N= defeat 'simply not an option'- political survival impossible if failed
  • N order bombing selected NV targets
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BOMBING NV LIKE NEVER BEFORE

  • bB-52s used 1st time since 1968, PAVN still advanced
  • N want increase bombing
  • Laird feared Congress reaction loss of planned summit meetings
  • N went ahead
  • bomb oil depots Hanoi
  • divide moscow and hanoi threaten cancellation of summit meeting
  • K gave detente priority, hint US accept coailition gov without NV withdrawal, more inclined compromise than N
  • mining NVs ports 1972
  • if US strong, world remain 1/2 comm not wholly comm
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Concessions & FORCE

  • N continue bombing throughout may 1972 during summit meeting
  • 'get US out with honour'
  • approval rating rise
  • US offer PAVN remain in Vietnam
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HANOI FALTERING

  • pressure US concessions & USSR & China, failure offensive take major cities, Op Phoenix, B-52s, prob re-election mad bomber
  • N= working after 3 yrs
  • Op Phoenix found press 1972 so cancelled
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AUTUMN 1972 RUNNING OUT OF TIME AND MONEY

  • troop withdrawals, Congress no longer shamed grant £ to 'for our boys'
  • 55% support bombing
  • 78% not fall to comm
  • N 'settle or else!'
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COMPROMISE

  • Han let Thieu stay power
  • US let PAVN stay SV, not insist ceasefire Laos & C
  • K suggest Comittee of National Reconciliation (1/3 SV, 1/3 Comm, 1/3 neutral)
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PEACE

  • Oct Kiss agreement=
  • US withdraw but supply ARVN
  • National Council of Reconciliation
  • US POWs released
  • Thieu= power
  • PAVN stay SV
  • Us help economically

NO COLD FEET- REJECT BECAUSE:

  • fear peace now look like electoral ploy
  • might vote deomcratic- peacemakers
  • US like right winged
  • Thieu reject
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PERSUADING THIEU

  • re-elected Nov 1972
  • new democratic Congress= no £
  • 'swift and severe retaliationary action'
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XMAS BOMBING 1972

  • 18th December bomb/mine Haiphong again
  • worldwide uproar, 1000 civilians dead in Hanoi
  • K= creack, leak press he opposed it (untrue)

WHY??

  • re-assure Thieu
  • Us= strong
  • pressure/weaken Hanoi
  • 'war by tantrum'
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PEACE 1973

  • 27th January 1973, Paris Peace Accords

declare ceasefire throughout Viet, POWs exchanged, PAVN remain power SV not increase numbers or take advantage, Thieu= power committee of reconciliation

N promise secretly give mil $ re-construct Hanoi

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