Neurone Structure, Action Potential, Effect of Drugs, Central Nervous System, Control of Skeletal Muscle, The Mammalian Eye

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Neurone properties

The motor neurone controls the contraction of muscle cellls.

  • Cell body containing nucleus and other organelles
  • Dendrites radiate from the cell body to communicate with other neurones
  • A long axon, full of many mitochondria, leads out of the cell body
  • The axon is insulated by the myelin sheath
  • Myelin sheath consists of a membrane of a Schwann cell, which wraps around a layer of fat surrounding the axon, insulating the axon.
  • At intervals there are gaps in the sheath, where impuses are regenerated, which are called nodes of Ranvier
  • The axon ends in a number of dendrites which contact muscle tissue with motor end plates

Sensory neurones are similar to motor neurones, with a few differences:

  • The neurones transmit messages to the Central Nervoud System
  • Each neurone has a receptor, reacting to a certain stimulus (e.g. Temperature)
  • The receptor reacts to local change by generating a nervous impulse
  • When a stimulus illicits an impulse being created, it is known as a transduction
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