Propaganda aims to control how people think.
- Spreading information that influences how people think & behave
- Certain points of view- leaves out important facts
- Gain support of German people
Goebbels took charge of Nazi Propaganda.
- Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda- founded 1933- led by Dr Joseph Goebbels
- Had departments for all the arts- artists etc had to register to get work approved
- Persuaded Nazis were right
- Stopped people reading & hearing anything that gave a different message
The Nazis used Propaganda as a method of control.
- Encouraged people to hate countries who signed the Treaty of Versailles
- Said Jews and communists were the cause of problems
- Used to unite Germans & make them believe the Nazis would make Germany great
- Took simple ideas & repeated them
- People- easier to persuade- depression had left them in poverty- they were promised help
Nazis used the media as a tool of Propaganda.
- Controlled the media
- Controlled content of newspapers & broadcasts- sold cheap radios
- Films- showed strength of Hitler & weakness of opponents
- Important German director- Leni Rienfenstahl
- Posters- showed evil of Germany's enemies & power of Hitler
Other forms of Propaganda were used.
- Public rallies- annual Nuremburg Rallies focused on speeches by leading Nazis
- 1 million + attended the 1936 rally
- Displays of lights & flags to greet- made Hitler look powerful
- Nazis power- shown through art & architecture- grand new buildings appeared in Nuremburg & Berlin
- 1936 Berlin Olympics- show off German wealth & power
- Hitler was angered when Jesse Owen won 4 gold medals (african american)
Hitler was portrayed as the Saviour of Germany.
- Gobbels created- Hitler Myth- make him seem like God & saviour
- Cult of the Fuhrer
- Slogan: 'One people, one empire, one leader'
- Purpose of rallies- increase loyalty to Hitler
- Many Germans devoted their lives to Hitler
Propaganda had major effects on Society and Culture.
- Tried to control every aspect of life- inluding religion
- Priests who disagreed- went to concentration camps
- School textbooks- made Germans look successful- children taught to believe in German doctrines
- 'Strength through joy' progranme- show workers Nazis cared about conditions
- Promised empire would last 1000 years- based on traditional values
- Modern art- banned in favour- realistic paintings that fit Nazis ideology
- Modern art- labelled degenerate & exhibitions- showed people how bad it was
- Nazis celebrated- German composers- Wagner
- Modern classical music & works by jewish composers & jazz- attacked
Society seemed different to that of the Weimar Republic.
- Weimar republc- disappointed old fashioned Germans- standards had slipped- welcomed Nazis
- More freedom under Weimar- Nazis-harmful- keep tight control
- Nazis promises gave workers & business hope after depression
Censorship and Suppression
The Nazis set up a Totalitarian state.
- TS- government had complete control
- After weakening opposition- enabling act 1933- unlimited power to pass laws
- July 1933- other political parties were banned
- Law for Reconstruction of the Reich- Nazis total power over state governments
Germany became a police state.
- SS began as bodyguard for Hitler- feared for cruelty
- Expanded under Himmler leadership (1930s)
- Himmler in charge- secret police called the Gestapo
- After 1933- concentration camps spread- hold political prisoners and dangers to Nazis
- Some were later turned to death camps
- Local wardens employed- ensure civilian loyalty
- People- encouraged to report disloyalty- many arrested as a result by Gestapo
Censorship and Suppression
Censorship helped to stifle opposition.
- 25000+ books were burned- single night 1933
- Only favourable news was allowed- Ministry of Public Enlightenment
- Jews- forbidden to own or publish newspapers- could be executed for publishing anti Nazis work
Hitler attacked all groups that might oppose the Nazis.
- 1934- Night of the Long Knives- killed rival leaders- Ernst Rohm (leader of SA)
- Tried to control churches- some members were sent to concentration camps
- 1933- trade unions were banned
- German Labour Front introduced- include workers & employers- strikes were illegal
The Nazis used concentration camps to removed anyone they did not like uncluding disabled people, homosexual, Jews and communist. Some of these became extermination camps.