Organisation of Propaganda
The aims of Nazi Propaganda
- To keep the population contented
- To win support for policies
- Indocrinate the people with their Weltanschaung (view of the world), and make them committed members of their Volkgemeinschaft
- 1933- Dr Josef Goebbels was in charge of the Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda (RMVP).
- It is difficult to have a dictatorship without technology
- Radio, loudspeakers, microphones, film, etc, made images and speeches accesable to all.
- In 1932 Hitler was the first politician to use the aeroplane to travel to rallies to gain support.
- The Central Propaganda office of the Nazi Party was created alongside the state structure of RMVP-consisting of its own party retaining propaganda and organisation.
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Methods of Propaganda
- Individuals who were involved in the industry, such as journalists and editors, had to join organisations, that were compulsory for Nazi's to control them.
- The content of press release was controlled.
- RMVP held daily press conferences and details on content length and position of articles.
- The Nazi ownership of the press was extended. In 1933, they controlled 3% of newspapers. In 1939, they controlled 69%. In 1944, they controlled 82%. However, the name of these ownerships kept their names, despite them now being Nazi newspapers.
- This was the most powerful tool for indoctrination.
- 1934- Nazis took over control.
- There were mass produced 'people recievers'- which were also subsidised.
- Only one station available
- 1939- 70% households owned a radio, there were commanual loudspeakers in the streets.
- Entertainment programmes were transmitted, but most importantly Hitler's key speeches.
- 1933=50 key boradcasts, this reached 56 million people from 70 million.
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Methods of Propaganda x2
- Film companies were allowed to remain private (to avoid impact on export sales) until 1942, when they were nationalised.
- Content of German and imported films were regulated by Goebbels who approved every film, only 1/6 contained propaganda.
- The purpose of film was mainly for keeping support, not indoctrination.
- Heinrich Hoffman=Hitler's official photographer.
- Photos were stage managed.
- Activites were organised for masses to develop fitness for soldiers and child bearers. Sport was also encouraged as a spectator activity.
- 1936 Olympic Games Berlin-opportunity to display the physical superiority of Germany as the 'Master Race'. Anti-Semitic propaganda was reduced during the games. Germany headed the league table.
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Methods of Propaganda x3
Meetings and rallies
- These were mainly attended by Nazi supporters; films may want them to take part.
- They were choreographed and staged, like pop concerts are, including; flags, lights, uniforms, and music.
- Hitlers speeches were a major part of rallies. They created a feeling of wanting to belong.
- These were often held on festival days, which celebrated key dates in the Nazi year.
The image of Hitler
- Nazi propaganda portrayed Hitler as the supreme leader of a 'new' Germany, structured according to the Enabling Act (Fuhrer) and therefore stronger and more dynamic than Weimar democracy. He was seen as utterly devoted to the service of his country, a political genius responsible for solving German's problems, and an uncompromising man of stength and determination.
- He was far from dedicating himself to the cause of his nation at all times-often on holiday. He was far from decisive-no clear decision making decisions (overlapping and competing structures). Hiter was also not responsible for some of the successes of Nazi Policy (Hjalmar Schacht-Minister of Economics).
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