Nazi Germany - 1918-39 - Weimar Germany

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Treaty of Versailles - Territory

  • 12.5% of population lost
  • 13% of land lost
  • 50% of iron and 15% of coal lost
  • 11 colonies of Africa and Middle East taken over as mandates
  • Alsace - Lorraine returned to France
  • The Polish Corridor given to Poland
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Treaty of Versailles - Reparations

  • £6.6 billion to be paid in reparations
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Treaty of Versailles - Armaments

  • German army limited to 100 000
  • Only 6 battleships
  • No air force
  • No submarines
  • Rhineland demilitarized
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Treaty of Versailles - War Guilt

  • Germany forced to accept the blame for the entire war
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Treaty of Versailles - League of Nations

  • Germany not allowed to join the League of Nations until it proved that it was a peace - loving country
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Impact of War - Economic

  • National Income 1/3 of what it was in 1913
  • Industrial production 2/3 of what it was in 1913
  • 600 000 widows and 2 million children without fathers, so 1/3 of budget spent on war pensions
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Impact of War - Social

  • Huge gap between rich and poor
  • Women worked in factories during the war - seen as damaging to traditional values
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Impact of War - Political

  • October / November revolution 1918 led to unstable democratic republic
  • Many despised new leaders for signing Treaty of Versailles (Dolchloss - Stab in the Back) - known as 'November Criminals'
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Impact of War - Physical

  • 1916 - 17 - no potatoes, only turnips
  • 1918 - 50% of milk and 60% of butter / meat production compared to before the war
  • Naval blockade, so no food import
  • 3/4 million deaths - hunger / disease
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Impact of War - Psychological

  • Germans very angry and bitter about defeat - Nationalism
  • (Previously undefeated army)
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Political Problems 1918-23 - Private Armies

  • Red Front Fighters (LW)
  • Steel Helmets (RW)
  • Sozi (MOD)
  • 376 political murders 1919-22
  • 10 LW assassins convicted, no RW
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Political Problems 1918-23 - The Spartacist League

  • LW
  • Rosa Luxembourg, Karl Liebknecht
  • Winter 1918-19
  • Set up workers soviets throughout country
  • Central Council of Commisars - 'true government'
  • 100 000 demonstrated in Berlin - took over key buildings
  • Chancellor couldn't defeat alone (TofV - Armaments)
  • Freikorps involved - 250 000 by march 1919
  • Succeeded in putting down uprisings
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Political Problems 1918-23 - Kapp Putsch

  • RW
  • Dr Wolfgang Kapp
  • 1920
  • 5000 marched on Berlin 
  • Government fled to Dresden - urged workers to strike
  • Capital ground to a halt
  • Kapp fled
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Political Problems 1918-23 - Summary

  • Weimar relied on Freikorps and Workers Strikes
  • Government killed thousands of Germans to stay in power
  • Extremist parties gained strength - power of private armies
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Economic Problems 1918-23 - Bankruptcy

  • Germany spent all of money on war
  • Needed to pay £6.6 billion in reparations
  • Could not pay by 1923 - bankrupt
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Economic Problems 1918-23 - Occupation of the Ruhr

  • Germany could no longer pay reparations
  • France invaded the Ruhr in 1923 (legally)
  • Confiscated industrial equipment and raw materials
  • 80% of iron and coal
  • Government could not retaliate (TofV - Armaments)
  • Urged workers to strike
  • French simply arrested strikers and brought in their own workers
  • Eventually left in 1925
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Economic Problems 1918-23 - Inflation

  • Due to Bankruptcy, the price of goods was increasing
  • The Occupation of the Ruhr caused prices of manufactured goods to increase even further
  • 1919-23 - Governement income 1/4 of required
  • The Government simply printed more money
  • 1923 - 300 paper mills and 2000 printing shops just to print money

Cost of loaf of bread:

1919: 1 mark

1922: 200 marks

1923: 100 000 million marks (Hyperinflation)

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Stresemann - Currency

  • 1923
  • Stresemann created the Rentenmark, which stabilized the currency, encouraging foreign investors
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Stresemann - Dawes Plan

  • 1924
  • Annual payments reduced to affordable level
  • American banks invested 800 million marks into German industry
  • Industrial output doubled 1924 - 28
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Stresemann - Locarno Pact

  • 1925
  • Germany agreed to keep new borders
  • Allied troops left the Rhineland
  • France agreed peace
  • Talks opened about German membership in League of Nations
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Stresemann - League of Nations

  • 1926
  • Germany accepted in the League of Nations
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Stresemann - Kellogg - Briand Pact

  • 1928
  • Germany signed agreement with 64 other countries not to use war to achieve foreign policy aims
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Stresemann - Young Plan

  • 1929
  • Reduced total reparations from £6.6 billion to £2 billion
  • Allowed a further 59 years to pay reparations
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The Great Depression - Causes

  • October 1929 - Wall Street Crash
  • Falling shares meant investors lost $4000 million over one week
  • German banks major investors - people rushed to take out their money
  • Banks desperately needed money invested in businesses
  • Businesses forced to close or reduce operations
  • Industrial output fell, Unemployment rose
  • 1929-32 - 40% fall in industrial production
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The Great Depression - Effects

  • Middle classes lost savings
  • Workers unemployed
  • President proposed:

- raising taxes to pay for unemployment (RW opposed)

- reducing unemployment benefit to make more affordable (LW opposed)

  • Failure of coalition, so forced to govern by decree, 66 in 1932
  • President resigned 1932 - power vacuum
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