Multi Store Model Essay (B Grade)

A basic plan for a Multi Store Model essay, 

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  • Created by: Vikii
  • Created on: 12-06-12 14:08

Paragraph One - Explanation of Multi-Store Model

Multi-Store Model - A theoretical explanation of how memory processes work.

The first extensively accepted model of memory

HOWEVER, it's not the definitive explanation.

First proposed by ATKINSON & SHRIFFIN [1968]

Suggests there are 3 stages to memory

1. Sensory Memory

2. Short Term Memory

3. Long Term Memory

Information passes through each of these stages in a fixed sequence. 

HOWEVER, There are limitations to capacity and duration of each stage and info can be lost.

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Paragraph Two - Sensory Memory

Info recieved in this stage is always either AUDIO or VISUAL

This stage has a very limited duration, less than a second UNLESS attention is paid to the subject.

If attention is paid to the subject, it will be passed into the Short Term Memory

SPERLING [1960] (Iconic Store) supports this theory
His results show participants could only remember approx 1/3 of info immediately after being shown it.

Shows that sensory memory does exist, but is very limited.

HOWEVER, this was a lab study, meaning it lacks ecological validity and cannot be generalised to real life

TREISMAN [1964] also supports this theory
He found the same results while studying Echoic memory 

Therefore further supporting this theory. 

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Paragraph Three - Short Term Memory [STM]

ALL sensory information thats been paid attention to goes to the STM

This has a short duration as well, but is considerably longer than the Sensory Memory at 30 seconds. 
For this information to be remembered, it needs to be rehearsed, once rehearsed, it will transfer to the Long Term Memory.

PETERSON AND PETERSON [1959] supports this theory
Their results showed when rehearsal is prevented, items in the STM are lost quickly [Lasting approx. 18 seconds]

This proves Short Term Memory exists, and info cannot be kept there long

MILLER [1956] also supports this theory
Says STM can be improved by chunking, stating as long as items were in a single unit the would be remembered. 

HOWEVER, SIMON [1970] says chunks should be in small units to be remembered [max, 3 units of info] which dispuits miller but still supports STM.

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Paragraph Four - Long Term Memory [LTM]

LTM can only be achieved by rehearsal.

Information in this store can be recalled months or even years after they've been stored. 

MURDOCK [1962] Supports this theory
His results showed that the start and end of an item are better remembered as they've had time to be properly stored, or are still present in the STM,

Supports MSM theory as it shows we do have STM & LTM.

HOWEVER, Study is severly outdated, participants were all a similar age and all studied psychology, meaning it cannot be generalised and lacks ecological validity and reliability [as if the test were to be repeated, Psych students wouldn't be used]

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Paragraph Five - Evaluation

MSM does have many criticisms as well as supporting theories.

GLANCER AND CUNITZ [1966] supports MSM theory
Shows rehearsal is important to LTM, also shows STM is limited, re-iterating the theory of the MSM 

HOWEVER, DE GROOT [1966] Dispuits MSM theory
Found that Chess Players memories were drastically worse when pieces were assembled randomly on a board
Shows MSM theory is basic and limited, ALSO shows that STM and LTM may not be as seperate as first thought

SHALLICE AND WARRINGTON [1970] Also dispuits MSM theory
Showed KF's LTM was fine, but STM was bad. This shouldn't be possible according to MSM theory as all info must pass through STM to get to LTM
Long Term memories shouldn't be formed with a damaged STM is MSM is to be believed. 

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