Migration- AS

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Post accession economic migration


  • In 2004 8 eastern european countries including Slovakia and Poland joined the EU- leading to increased numbers of migration towards the UK and Ireland.
  • WHY?
  • Pull Factors- to the UK...
  • Gaps in labour market meant that there was a range of well-paid employment (Can pay five times more) oppurtunities (construction for men, service and industry work in restaurants and hotels for women)...with a guaranteed minimum wage which Poland did not have.
  • More skilled professionals such as Dentists filled labour gaps.
  • UK seen as a cultural music HUB- big music scene- many music festvials (Glastonbury)
  • Secondary Pulls- 1.High quality of UK primary schools 2.Free healthcare for migrants wanting to settle permanently and raise families.
  • Push Factors- from Poland...
  • Low pay levels- 2004 GDP per capita in Poland US$12,600, 2/5ths of the UK, therefore they had the oppurtunity to earn much more!
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Post accession economic migration 2

  • Many years of Soviet rule had resulted in bland entertainments for young adults, prompting an exodus of Polish musicians and artists...Poland was seen as "behind the times" musically....compared to the UK's bright light big city (main export=music)
  • As well as Push and Pull Factors...
  • Ending visa restrictions on entry to the UK- accelerated the rate of migration...
  • Only thought 30,000 people were migrating...A Million in total came...of which 600,000 were from Poland.
  • As well as this, this constrasted with other EU countries-notably Germany...- who adopted a 7 year interim rule- limiting the migration flow from Eastern Europe to mere tens of thousands...meaning more migrants headed for the UK...
  • Consequences of MIGRATION
  • Source Region...
  • Economic costs...-lost generation of human resources schooled in Poland at taxpayers' expense...However remittances often makes up for this loss.
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Post accession economic migration 3

  • Cultural decline of some urban areas where nightclubs and music venues have closed.
  • Consequences of migration for Host region- The UK.
  • Economic benefits of a hard-working army of labour-rural areas such as around Peterborough' farms where hotels are or in highland areas...
  • the belief shared by some UK citizens that they cannot find jobs because of immigration- views which are popularised by the BNP and certain newspapers)
  • a political pledge in 2010 by David Cameron to cut net migration.
  • Shortages of places in Primary Schools due to increased births in areas where young Eastern Europeans have settled...
  • leading to the expansion of classes.
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Retirement Migration- The Mediterranean

  • Many UK residents relocated to the Mediterranean coastline (France, Italy & Spain) between 1993 and 2008.
  • Majority retired people, as well as sun-seekers and younger entrepreneurs.
  • WHY?
  • Pull Factors- dry, hot weather compared with the UK (temp reaching 30 C or higher in summer)
  • Physical and Human geography of coastline provides a range of attractions...sandy beaches in Corsica, The Cannes film festival.
  • The construction boom in early noughties resulted in an abundance of cheap property by UK standards as the euro had a much lower value compared to the pound then.
  • Push factors- mainly "mirror-images" of these pull factors.

Consequences for Source Region

  • Include economic loss of many working age people in 20s and 30s as well as the 'grey pound' of older people.
  • NHS savings are negligible, people can returen to UK for health treatments.
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Retirement Migration- The Mediterranean 2

Consequences for Host Region

  • Mediterrenean- Economic Benefit of UK citizens consuming local services and before...helping to keep local housing markets buoyant.
  • O.T.O.H...poor behaviour of young 'Brits' has sometimes strained relations with indigenous communities e.g. Callela, 30 miles north of Barcelona.
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