• MIGRATION - Movement of people from one place to another either- forced or voluntary
  • Forced- war, enviornmental disasters e.g. volcanoes 
  • War- Afganistan - over 3 million refugees 
  • Soufriere Hills 1995 - volcanoe erupted - island of montserrat
  • Residents forced north - villages destroyed 
  • Over 5000 people left in islanfd, mostly settled nearby island Antigua or move to UK
  • People move Poland ---> UK
  • Move within EU - works in other Eu countries 
  • 1/2 million  poland ---> UK in 2004- 2007 
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Push and Pull Factors - Poland & UK

  • Push Factors Poland:
    • High Unemployment - 19% 2004- working age come UK = Economic migrants 
    • Low average wage - Left Polnad for higher wages e.g. income EU 2004 was 3X greater 
    • Low Housing Availability - not enough houses - 2004 300 homes for  every 1000 people
  • Pull Factors UK 
    • Ease of migration- UK, Ireland and Sweden unlimited migrants from new member countries 
    • Good exchange rate- few £ in UK worth lot of Zloty. small amount = big difference 
    • Plenty of better paid jobs - Labour shortages in occupations in UK e.g. tradesman 

Many migrate for education purposes. 

Chinese students study in UK in English schools and Universities 

UK ----> Spain retirement due to cost living lower- more money spend on other thing. - Hot, dry and less changeable  than UK 

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  • Sex selective:- High % males migrant e.g. Mexicans into California or Arizona 
  • Many work on farms/ resturants 
  • Qatar very high % males migrants in oil/ construction industries 
  • Amersterdam many E.European women migrant - sex industry 
  • Over 210 million migrants world today from 150 million in 2000
  • H.% migrants in Middle East - working rapidly growing economcies 
  • Qatar proportion 87% of pop. united Arab Emirates 70%, Jordon 46%, Saudi Arabia 28%
  • Classified into internal (within country e.g. rural to urban migration occur LEDC e.g. India  from rural into cities such as Mumbai, Bangalove) & external (international) 
  • Countries such as UK most Counterurbanisation - Cities -----> countryside 
  • Many retire to coastal settlements such as Bridgport, Lyme Regis
  • Can be classified as either temporary or permanent 
  • Temporary include University students moving into city to study for a few years
  • Also Army people going to a war zone such as Iraq
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Pos/Neg - Eco, Social, Enviro Exporting Country



1. Economy grows because money sent back to poland e.g. 2006 £3.45 billion from aboard 

2. Increased immigation from poland = more air traffic between poland and UK e.g. over 500000 passengers to and from UK 2003 and 3.3 million in 2006 : money made by airlines 


1. Poland Pop shrunk many migrate e.g. fell 0.3% between 2003-07. BR decreased 2003-05 partly because lot of people that have left are of reproductive age 

2. bad effect on polish economy- shortages of labourers - less work done = economy doesn't grow as much 

3. Increased air traffic = more greenhouse gases are released, making global war mining worse

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Impact on receiving country

  •  Population UK increased as a result
  • MIgration working age has helped problems caused by UK's ageing pop
  • Young migrant workers pay taxes abd used to support the older retired people e.g. pay pension
  • Immigration policy UK changed because influnt polish migrant. Rominia and Bulgaria joined EU 2007, UK didn't allow unlimited migration like it had for poland 
  • UK economy loses out - money earnt in UK by Polish workers not all spent in UK 
  • Shops selling Polish product opened in areas where polish people settled e.g. West Midlands 
  • Number people attending Catholic Church services UK increased- most Catholics 
  • Brings revenue to British airline flying to and from poland 
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Impact on receiving country Spain

  • People who moved retired 
  • People retire to spain 65+ pop structure Spain greater pop of older 
  • UK migrants don't live all year ( e.g 230000 part there resident in 2008) - return to UK regulary 
  • Migrants in 50s/ 60s migrated in1980s- 90s - reaching age need long term medical care unkown whether Spainish health system can cope: strain on system 
  • UK migrants - set up communities with british shops and restaurants. Some don't speak Spanish so don't interact with local community, which leads to tensions 
  • Jobs created needed, e.g more homes help & construction workers to build homes 
  • UK spend saving in Spain, helping spanish economy to grow 
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Other general impacts of migration into a country

  • Gender ratio e.g. where migration is dominated by a particular sex, e.g. construction workers from India to Dubia ( mainly male) 
  • Philippine females outmigrating to MEDCs- work on cruiseship
  • Retirement migration - South Coast UK may lead to h% of retirees make up pop e.g. Bridgport 
  • Total number  people will increase, leading overpopulation e.g. rural to urban migration in many developing countries such as Brazil leads overpopulation e.g. Rio de Janerio
  • Rio de Janerio - 600 squatter settlements leading to much pollution ( air and water) 
  • Refugee countries in SAHEL countries in Africa have led enviornmental degradation ( land destruction) 
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What are the demographic Challenges facing countri

  • 1969- women average 6.5 children and only 16% used contraceptives - Pop growth was 3% per annum
  • Solution nationwide - family planning programmes :- free contrception, trained family planning specialist, government campaigns especially rural communities
  • 2010 - 72% married women were using contraceptives, women averaged 1.8 children and population growth 0.6% per annum 
  • Pop 68.1 million continue to rise sbut slower rate increased- successfull communities based, rather than coercive policy
  • Fun events such as birth control carnivals - organised. Formers who have registered for family planning = financial benefits, such as above market prices for their crops, veduced transport costs to market 
  • Increased contraceptive use as a result in media, economic incentives and community involvment. Key message links family planning and low family size to higher standards of living 
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Birth Control Policy - Kerala, India

  • Kerala's 32 milion pmake up 3.4% of India's pop. At 819 people per KM2, population density is 3X the Indian average  
  • South India- state Kerala about twice size of wales, with pop of 32 millions

Policy reduce high population growth has invovled:

  • improving education standards and treating girls as equal with boys 
  • providing adult literacy  classes in town and villages 
  • educating people on benefits of smaller families 
  • reducing infant mortality so people do not need as may kids 
  • improving child health through vaccination programmes
  • providing free contraception and advice 
  • encouraging a higher age of marriage 
  • allowing maternity leave for first two babies only
  • extra retirement benefits if smaller families 
  • following a land reform programme
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1.6 Policies to alleviate the demographic challeng

  • Globally HIV/AIDS is the fourth biggest killer. Today over 30 million people infected by the virus
  • The continent of Africa, and especially the sub-saharan region, dominates the geograpghy of HIV/AIDS (22.5 million)
  • Education can be one of the most successful ways of tackling HIV/AIDS
  • It doesn't only help the people infected and reduce the number of those who become infected, by learning about safe practice
  • It can also help improve the lives of those already with the disease
  • Swaziland 
  • High MR:- poverty, bad health care 
    • Sierra Leone: 20 per 1000
    • Central African Republic: 19 per 1000
  • Countries suffering ravages of AIDS:
    • Lesotho: 23 per 1000
    • Swaziland 15 per 1000
  • Countries at war:
    • Afghanistan: 18 per 1000
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Swaziland - reduce mortality rate

  • 1992- HIV surveillance was intro, as 3.9 % of pregnant women = HIV Positive 
  • Condom use promoted by free distribution 
  • All donated blood was screened for HIV
  • Improvements to healthcare for those living with HIV and particularly to prevent transmission between mother and child 
  • Improvements to women access to prevntion services 
  • Early diagnosis established by scaling up testing services. Swaziland increasing number of sites (40+) providing voluntary counselling and testing; by 2008 the government aimed to have 40% of adults aged 15 to 49 tested for HIV 
  • Behavior change encouraged by communication disturbuted through national media, in schools and in workplace. Adverts on billboards, radio and the printed press with slogans such as ' because tomorrow is mine' have been set up 
  • 2001 King Mswati III reinstrated a custom that banned all girls under 18 from sexual activity for 5 year , and required a man who had sex with a virgin to pay a dow to a girl's family. Virgins made to wear tassels. 
  • Government providing free antivetroviral treatment nationwide 
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The Demographic causes and effect of ageing societ

Cause of ageing pop

  • 2010, 17% Uk pop were over 65; those over 85 were 2.3%  of pop and by 2035 over 655 is forecast to be 23%
  • Elderly dominate by females with a ratio 2 females to every man at age 89
  • The baby boom- post 1945 periods now retired 
  • LE women UK- 82
  • LE males UK- 77
  • Reasons for the ageing population are: 
    • Increaing life expectancy 
    • Baby booms- lots of babies were born in the 1940s and 1960s. These large generations are starting to retire, increasing the number of elderly people 
    • Falling birth rate- there are fewer young people, so the proportion of older people is greater 
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Number issues are associated with ageing populatio

1. Pressure on the pension system

    • Aren't enough people of working age to pay for an adequal pension for the retired population. State pensions are paid for by the working pop through taxes
    • Today 60% pop are paying taxes that 90 towards the pensionof 19% of the pop
    • 2030, only 56%  pop will be of working age but but the taes they pay will have to pay for the pensionof 27% pop of retirement age

2. More elderly people living in poverty 

    • State pension isn't very large and many people don't have other savings. Working pop isn't large enough for a better pension
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7. Concentration of the elderly in specific location of the British Isles eg Bridgport , Honiton puts strain on services e.g. local doctors 

8. Older workers have a wealth of experience and knowledge which is valuable. Eg B&Q employ the elderly 

9. Ageing pop might be associated with less crime and fewer road accidents 

10. Countries such as Germany encourage immigration as they have an ageing pop- to keep their economy growing. However, immigration of different ethnic groups has coused social tension in some parts of Germany 

11. Suitable accommodation needs to be provided to be provided for the elderly such as care homes and warden assisted proporties. Companies to cater the housing needs of the elderly hvave been estabished eg McCarthy and Stone 

12. Importance of the grey vote, reflected e.g policies on law and order 

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Consequences of refugees and asylum seekers e.g. U

1. Discriminate between aslyum seekers and opportunists ( economic migrants), 80 % applications rejected by authorties 

2. Problem of keeping such people secure whilst their credentials are eneched and formationities completed eg Bosnian Muslims in 1990s in UK 

3. Most AS arrive by ferry at channel ports or airports such as Heathrow. This puts starin on reception centres/ detention centres in London and Kent. Many AS have to be disperesd to  other centres in other parts of the country eg Birmingham and Plymouth

4. Some local residents object to the scheme of accpeting local AS in certain areas eg Manchester, Bolton. This has been suspened at request of local counsils and the police to stop threatened ethnic disturbances 

5. Failed AS are repatiated at cost of GVT- particularly form China, Zimbabwe, Iraq, Afghanistan 

6. One A has been granted, effect local schools, health& welfare services- suddenly cope with increase in local pop who may not speak English but require that use of local services 

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7. Housing & employment - issued addresses. Jobs are difficult to find because to find because many immgrationts have few skills and much industry has moved out of the inner city areas where many immgrants live. Many jobs are poorly paid and so they cannot afford housing- many live in overcrowded poor quality housing. Despite legislation there is still considerable bias against non white job appliacation 

8. High rate of crime- violence, drugs, muggings and knife crime, and there have been complaints of police harassment. The greatest concentration of ethnic groups are in London, West Midlands eg Birmingham. 

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3. Pressure on the health service Older people often need more medical care than younger people eg the average stay in hospital in 2005 for over 75 was 13 nights, but only 8 nights for the UK pop as a whole

4. There will not be enough vigorous innovative willing young workers to pay taxes to pay taxes to look after the old so econmy will stagnate

5. Industries catering for the youth market will decline e.g. ipods 

6. There may be social consequences within a family regarding care for the elderly eg a sick elderly relative may need lots if care& attention, putting strain on families 

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