Media Revision - Newspapers, Theories and Gaming

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: BenG421
  • Created on: 04-06-15 11:26

Leveson Inquiry

  • Set up by D.C - NOTW Phone Hacking - Millie Dowler
  • ‘Culture, ethics and practices’ of the press
  • 337 witnesses called…
  • PM, Chancellor, Ed Milliband, Rupert Murdoch etc.
  • Most emotive = Testimony of normal people (e.g. Jeffries)
  • PCC - Roundly condemned inadequate
1 of 16

PCC - Press Complaints Commission

  • Set up post Sir David Calcutt's report - 1990
  • Examined 'privacy and press' first time
  • Prior - Regulated by 'Press Council'
  • Deal with complaints - Breach 'editors code of practice' ?
  • Membership = Voluntary
  • No sanction against those not subcribed
  • Northen & Shell Group withdrew 2011
  • Star and Express - Not regulation till IPSO
  • NO POWER to subpoena documents or dicate apology
  • Published negative adjunction on website
2 of 16

PCC - Reception

  • Ian Hislop - No point in membership
  • Hugh Grant - 'They were very ineffectual' - after trying to remove paps. - '10% dip outside for 12 hours'
  • Max Mosely - Not bad rules, ability to enforce
  • JK Rowling - No sanctions, 'people wouldn't think twice' - pictures of her child
  • Christopher Jefferies - 'Wholly inadequate'
  • Richard Desmond - 'Useless organisation', 'phone hackers'
  • Sir Alan Moses - 'Not a regulator, it was a complaints handler' - Is chairman of IPSO
  • 'We wish to be an independent regulator'
3 of 16

Leveson - Final Report

  • Published Nov. 2012
  • Recommended regulatory body
  • Would have sanctions (fines, direction of apology etc.)
  • Membership voluntary
  • Incentivised - Inquisitorial arbitration service, damages to be awarded against non-participants

 

  • Negative reaction - Authoritarian? (more oppressive than Korea?)
  • Cameron - Went against word to back all plans
  • Scandal had faded somewhat
  • Oct. 2013 - Royal Charter - Cross party solution
  • Press produced IPSO
4 of 16

IPSO

  • Parliament not allowed influence over change to regulation
  • Agreed internally instead...
  • Former editors can serve
  • No requirement for 'industry experience'
  • Only one member to represent relevant publishers
  • Ensure upfront corrections - fully and prominently
  • Impose £1m fines
  • Arbitration service offers alternative to libal courts

 

  • Satisfies 12/38 of Levesons recommendations
  • (According to Media Standards Trust)
  • 2014 - Retired Judge, Alan Moses, appointed as Chairman
  • Jefferies - PCC Mark II
  • IPSO watch - shows there is still controversy
5 of 16

Royal Charter

  • Can be amended by Parliament (need 2/3 majority)
  • Former editors can be banned from 'recognition panel'
  • Appointments commitee - No more than 4 members
  • ^ None can be a serving MP or editor
  • Demand correction and apology from papers
  • Impose £1m fines
  • Small administration fee - fast complaints system
  • ^ All individuals could pursue action against papers
6 of 16

Sir Alan Moses | Media & Sport Committee, Feb 2015

  • 'No intelligent debate' on regulation
  • ALL PAPERS have 'theological objection' to R.C
  • No newspaper has seen incentive to join regulator
  • Sig. changes to IPSO - Require backing from funding body
  • 'awful, opaque and sometimes self-contradictory'
  • ^ Alone he cannot change them!
  • Strong connections with 'worst offenders'
  • 'For the first time ever, the members of the press have signed up to an agreement enforcable in court to be bound by these rules and the Editors Code'
  • Leveson - Need to look at the actual editors code
  • Instead inherited it exactly from PCC
  • Moses cannot change it without backing of Code Commitee
  • Paul Dacre - Still editor of Code Commitee - Nothing changed
  • Alan Moses - 'People with enormous power, not just to do good but to bully'
7 of 16

The Internet

  • Lord Justice Leveson - 'the elephant in the room'
  • 'ethical vaccum', 'act with impunity'
  • Regular argument - in direct competition with internet
  • Martin Clarke (Editor, Mail Online) 'competetive disadvantage'
  • Policeman in pub = regulating the internet
  • Robert Jay - 'internet problem', 'has potential to weaken claims for greater regulation'
  • Online violation of regulation - e.g. Prince Harry
  • 'Internet is a lawless zon operating without standards'
  • 'Difference in kind between photographs being available online and on the front page of a tabloid newspaper with a circulation of two million'
8 of 16

Genre Theories

  • Gunther Kress - 'a kind of text that derives its from from the structure of a frequently repeated social occasion' - Commonly repeated themes form genre
  • Rick Altman - Define genre by two things: Syntactic and Semantic elements

     - Syntactic - Themes and plots (harder to identify)

     - Semantic - Props and signs

 

  • Christine Gledhill - 'Different audiences identified and catered to', 'makes it easier to stabilise production'
  • Denis McQuail - 'Practical device that allows consistency' - People watch it because it is this genre - They like it - Genre promotes the product
9 of 16

Audience Theories

(Incorporate theories to camera, mise-en-scene etc.)

Effects (Hypodermic Needle) – Mass media injects thoughts into passive audience, works like drugs; i.e red bull associated with action sports. Inspired by propaganda techniques.

Reception – Viewer interprets product in different way, decoded by viewer, dominant, negotiated, oppositional (Stuart Hall), based around cultural background. Unique connection between the viewer and the product

Gratifications Model – Active audience, audience uses media rather than vice versa, can be...

...educational, informative, entertainment/escape (Blumler & Katz), changing to personal identity – pick up character traits, social interaction – discuss the media in social situations. Arguably suggests we are too reliant on media.

10 of 16

Representation Theories

How does this effect the audience? Link to specific area being discussed.

-

Vladimir Propp - Represent characters as particular types. Easily identifiable.

e.g. Hero, Villain etc. (ALSO NARRATIVE)

-

Levi Stauss - Binary opposites, good/evil, weak/strong (ALSO NARRATIVE)

-

Stanley Cohen - Believes particular groups are demonised and marginalised. Can result in negative recpetion or moral panic.

11 of 16

Media Language

  • Camera

 

  • Mise-en-scene

 

  • Editing

 

  • Sound
12 of 16

BBC Online (Feb 2014)

  • 'Leave teens morally immature'
  • Study 100, 13-14 - Weakened empathy
  • More than 50% - Player every day
  • Adolescents losing sense of right and wrong
  • Violent - Act out killing, maiming, decap. etc. - In control
  • Brock University: > 3 Hours, no moral adverse effects
  • Stops social experiences
13 of 16

BBC Online (Apr 2014)

  • Oxford Internet Institute - Modified Half Life 2
  • Feelings of incompetence - More aggressive
  • Gameplay mechanics focus - aggression
  • “if players feel thwarted by controls”
  • “feel need to master game”
  • Need further research
14 of 16

Guardian (May 2014)

  • Wake of killing - teacher Ann Maguire
  • Uni. Innsbruck - 98 studies - Do not affect social behaviour
  • Prosocial gamers - Show relief, relax and co-operation
  • Craig Anderson - Routinely reports violent links.
  • Hot sauce paradigm - Hotter with more violent use
  • Chris Ferguson - Commonly refutes these claims
15 of 16

More on Games...

  • Andrew Przybylski - More familiar, less concerned with effects.
  • 56% of UK - Games providecathartic outlet
  • Brad Bushman - 'Increases aggressive thoughts'
  • Cause more aggresion than film and TV - active not passive
  • 'identify and interact with a violent character'
  • Chris Ferguson - No link
  • Study used ESRB data to estimate violence within time period
  • Violence 'dropped precipitately' even in periods of media violence
  • Lack of research on real root of the problem
16 of 16

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Media Studies resources:

See all Media Studies resources »See all Newspapers and Gaming resources »