- Set up by D.C - NOTW Phone Hacking - Millie Dowler
- ‘Culture, ethics and practices’ of the press
- 337 witnesses called…
- PM, Chancellor, Ed Milliband, Rupert Murdoch etc.
- Most emotive = Testimony of normal people (e.g. Jeffries)
- PCC - Roundly condemned inadequate
PCC - Press Complaints Commission
- Set up post Sir David Calcutt's report - 1990
- Examined 'privacy and press' first time
- Prior - Regulated by 'Press Council'
- Deal with complaints - Breach 'editors code of practice' ?
- Membership = Voluntary
- No sanction against those not subcribed
- Northen & Shell Group withdrew 2011
- Star and Express - Not regulation till IPSO
- NO POWER to subpoena documents or dicate apology
- Published negative adjunction on website
PCC - Reception
- Ian Hislop - No point in membership
- Hugh Grant - 'They were very ineffectual' - after trying to remove paps. - '10% dip outside for 12 hours'
- Max Mosely - Not bad rules, ability to enforce
- JK Rowling - No sanctions, 'people wouldn't think twice' - pictures of her child
- Christopher Jefferies - 'Wholly inadequate'
- Richard Desmond - 'Useless organisation', 'phone hackers'
- Sir Alan Moses - 'Not a regulator, it was a complaints handler' - Is chairman of IPSO
- 'We wish to be an independent regulator'
Leveson - Final Report
- Published Nov. 2012
- Recommended regulatory body
- Would have sanctions (fines, direction of apology etc.)
- Membership voluntary
- Incentivised - Inquisitorial arbitration service, damages to be awarded against non-participants
- Negative reaction - Authoritarian? (more oppressive than Korea?)
- Cameron - Went against word to back all plans
- Scandal had faded somewhat
- Oct. 2013 - Royal Charter - Cross party solution
- Press produced IPSO
- Parliament not allowed influence over change to regulation
- Agreed internally instead...
- Former editors can serve
- No requirement for 'industry experience'
- Only one member to represent relevant publishers
- Ensure upfront corrections - fully and prominently
- Impose £1m fines
- Arbitration service offers alternative to libal courts
- Satisfies 12/38 of Levesons recommendations
- (According to Media Standards Trust)
- 2014 - Retired Judge, Alan Moses, appointed as Chairman
- Jefferies - PCC Mark II
- IPSO watch - shows there is still controversy
- Can be amended by Parliament (need 2/3 majority)
- Former editors can be banned from 'recognition panel'
- Appointments commitee - No more than 4 members
- ^ None can be a serving MP or editor
- Demand correction and apology from papers
- Impose £1m fines
- Small administration fee - fast complaints system
- ^ All individuals could pursue action against papers
Sir Alan Moses | Media & Sport Committee, Feb 2015
- 'No intelligent debate' on regulation
- ALL PAPERS have 'theological objection' to R.C
- No newspaper has seen incentive to join regulator
- Sig. changes to IPSO - Require backing from funding body
- 'awful, opaque and sometimes self-contradictory'
- ^ Alone he cannot change them!
- Strong connections with 'worst offenders'
- 'For the first time ever, the members of the press have signed up to an agreement enforcable in court to be bound by these rules and the Editors Code'
- Leveson - Need to look at the actual editors code
- Instead inherited it exactly from PCC
- Moses cannot change it without backing of Code Commitee
- Paul Dacre - Still editor of Code Commitee - Nothing changed
- Alan Moses - 'People with enormous power, not just to do good but to bully'
- Lord Justice Leveson - 'the elephant in the room'
- 'ethical vaccum', 'act with impunity'
- Regular argument - in direct competition with internet
- Martin Clarke (Editor, Mail Online) 'competetive disadvantage'
- Policeman in pub = regulating the internet
- Robert Jay - 'internet problem', 'has potential to weaken claims for greater regulation'
- Online violation of regulation - e.g. Prince Harry
- 'Internet is a lawless zon operating without standards'
- 'Difference in kind between photographs being available online and on the front page of a tabloid newspaper with a circulation of two million'
- Gunther Kress - 'a kind of text that derives its from from the structure of a frequently repeated social occasion' - Commonly repeated themes form genre
- Rick Altman - Define genre by two things: Syntactic and Semantic elements
- Syntactic - Themes and plots (harder to identify)
- Semantic - Props and signs
- Christine Gledhill - 'Different audiences identified and catered to', 'makes it easier to stabilise production'
- Denis McQuail - 'Practical device that allows consistency' - People watch it because it is this genre - They like it - Genre promotes the product
(Incorporate theories to camera, mise-en-scene etc.)
Effects (Hypodermic Needle) – Mass media injects thoughts into passive audience, works like drugs; i.e red bull associated with action sports. Inspired by propaganda techniques.
Reception – Viewer interprets product in different way, decoded by viewer, dominant, negotiated, oppositional (Stuart Hall), based around cultural background. Unique connection between the viewer and the product
Gratifications Model – Active audience, audience uses media rather than vice versa, can be...
...educational, informative, entertainment/escape (Blumler & Katz), changing to personal identity – pick up character traits, social interaction – discuss the media in social situations. Arguably suggests we are too reliant on media.
How does this effect the audience? Link to specific area being discussed.
Vladimir Propp - Represent characters as particular types. Easily identifiable.
e.g. Hero, Villain etc. (ALSO NARRATIVE)
Levi Stauss - Binary opposites, good/evil, weak/strong (ALSO NARRATIVE)
Stanley Cohen - Believes particular groups are demonised and marginalised. Can result in negative recpetion or moral panic.
BBC Online (Feb 2014)
- 'Leave teens morally immature'
- Study 100, 13-14 - Weakened empathy
- More than 50% - Player every day
- Adolescents losing sense of right and wrong
- Violent - Act out killing, maiming, decap. etc. - In control
- Brock University: > 3 Hours, no moral adverse effects
- Stops social experiences
BBC Online (Apr 2014)
- Oxford Internet Institute - Modified Half Life 2
- Feelings of incompetence - More aggressive
- Gameplay mechanics focus - aggression
- “if players feel thwarted by controls”
- “feel need to master game”
- Need further research
Guardian (May 2014)
- Wake of killing - teacher Ann Maguire
- Uni. Innsbruck - 98 studies - Do not affect social behaviour
- Prosocial gamers - Show relief, relax and co-operation
- Craig Anderson - Routinely reports violent links.
- Hot sauce paradigm - Hotter with more violent use
- Chris Ferguson - Commonly refutes these claims
More on Games...
- Andrew Przybylski - More familiar, less concerned with effects.
- 56% of UK - Games provide‘cathartic outlet’
- Brad Bushman - 'Increases aggressive thoughts'
- Cause more aggresion than film and TV - active not passive
- 'identify and interact with a violent character'
- Chris Ferguson - No link
- Study used ESRB data to estimate violence within time period
- Violence 'dropped precipitately' even in periods of media violence
- Lack of research on real root of the problem