Bowlby 44 theives
88 kids from London Child guidance clinic. 44 were juvenile theives and were refferred for stealing, 44 were controls and were refferred because of emotional problems.
The kids were assessed on arrival with interviews, case history and psychological testing. Mental tests were conducted on intelligence, as well as assessment of emotiobal attitudes towards the testing.
Findings: 2 of 44 theives normal, 32%affectionless, 17 of 44 experienced long seperation of more than 6 months before 6 years only 2 in control, 86% affectionless had experienced deprivation
In control: no affectionless but depressed
Conclusion: maternal deprivation caused permanent emotional damage, deprivation leads to an affectionless character and potential for criminal behaviour.
ADDIDDAS (characteristics of maternal deprivation): aggression, delinquency, dwarfism, intellectual retardation, depression, dependency, affectionless, social maladjustment
Generalisability: case studies of individual children, may not be generalisable to other groups of children
Reliability: the control group Bowlby used also had problems
Validity: range of methods used to collect data
Data retrospective, children may have been innaccurate recalling events
Romanian orphan studies
Rutter: 165 Romanian orphans adpoted in Britain. Physical, emotional & cognitive development assessed at 4, 6, 11 & 15. 52 British adopted as control group.
Findings: At first half showed signs of mental retardation and majority were severely undernourished. At 11 showed differential rates of recovery that were related to their age of adoption. Mean IQ of children adopted before 6 months was 102, between 6 months & 2 years it was 86 and after 2 years it was 77
Children adopted after 6 months showed attachment style of disinhibited attachment. SYmptoms include: attention seeking, clinginess & social behaviour directed indiscriminately towards all adults.
Romanian orphan studies evaluation
Natural experiment is high in ecological validity
Longitudinal compared to themdelves over time
But with longitudinal studies not all see it through to end- attrition
Not very random, children who seem to have more social skills are likely to be the ones adopted
Internal working model
A child having their first relationship with their primary attachment figure forms a template for future relationships.
The quality is crucial because it will powerfully affect their future relationships. A child with a good loving first relationship will assume this is how relationships are meant to be.
A child with a first bad experience will bring these into future relationships. They may struggle to form relationships in the first place or may behave inappropriately in them.
Influence of early attachment relationships on adu
Bowlby: later relationships are likely to be a continuation of early attachment styles because of the internal working model
Hazan and Shaver: The love quiz consisted of 2 components
- measure of attachment type & love experience questionnaire
Printed in local newspaper, 620 responses, 14-82 yrs
Secure said relationships were happy and trusting, insecure resistant said they involve obsession, insecure avoidant said they feared intimacy
Findings: high correlation between infant attachment types and adult romantic love styles
Conclusion: there was evidence to support the internal working model having a life long effect
influence of early attachment evaluation
May not have been accurate with their recall or may have lied, so may be subject to volunteer bias
Other studies support love quiz Feeney & Noller found securely attached infants had most long term romantic relationships
Kagan noted that innate temperamental characteristics had impact on mother-infant relationship, this would also affect the individual throughout life including in romantic relationships
They repeated the love quiz and again found strong evidence for the correlation of infant attachment type and adult love style