Emancipation of the Serfs - 1861
- Granted basic civil rights - a major reform at the time
- Did not improve standard of living - created frustration and and resentment
- Created the Zemtvas which allowed potential political activity (Taste for change)
- Still remained an autocratic leadership
- Encouraged industrialisation
- But did not receive the boost from emancipation that was expected as there were shortage of basic skills
Swept away the basis of the existing social order but not liberating enough - Led to Alex II assassination.
Assassination of Alex II - 1881
- Peasant Land Bank
- Poll Tax abolished
- 1889 - Land Captains
- Increased repression (Okhrana)
- Reversal of reforms
- Witte encouraged foreign investment which accelerated industrial development.
It marked the last chance that the Romanovs might reform sufficiently to save their doomed dynasty - u;timately led to events in 1905 and 1917.
Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
- October Manifesto allowed freedom of speech and censorship reduced
- Major cause of Revolution 1905
- Duma and political parties - if world War 1 did not interupt it could have been the saving grace of the Tsar.
- Shattered image of russia - weakness of army showed weak autocracy.
Planted the seeds for the 1917 made room for the increase of the Bolsheviks
- People were miserable
- Liberalised by Prov Gvt. (Feb 1917)
- By nbot pulling out Bolsheviks able to take power turning to communism.
- Bigger change in approach from agriculture to industry - allowed industrialisation in the 1930's
The most significant turning point as not just physical change but a change in attitudes. Most important for the impact of economy as it facilitated the quickest industrialisation.
October 1917, Civil War 1917-23
- Requisition squads destroyed everything.
- Mass hunger
- Change in ideology
- War Communism
Change in ideology from autocracy to glimmer of democracy to communism.
Stalins rise to power
- Level of repression peaks
- Working and living conditions still poor.
- No political freedom
- One Party State
- Red Tsar
- Transformed into a modern industrial power
- 1st Five Year Plan
It created an economically powerful country that could rival other Super Powers.
The Great Patriotic War (WW2)
- 27 million people died
- Scroched earth policy
- First time Russia had won a War for a century.
- Secured Stalins power unlike Tsars.
- Need for more industrialisation.
Made Russia into a super power, and was the catalyst of the Cold War. It also secured Stalins reign of Terror.
Khrushchev and The Cold War
- Becomes more liberal
- Creates a greater need to catch up with the West to save Face
- Nuclear improvements
A turning point as i believe it marks the end of Communism as it ultimately led to its fall in 1992.