Main Parts of the brain and their functions


Medulla Oblongata

  • Part of the Brain Stem

Responsible for controlling :

  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate 
  • Blood Pressure 
  • Also contains many important centres for the autonomic nervous systmen 
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  • recieves nerve impulses from many parts of the brain containing information about the body
  • It uses this infromation to coordinate a response through either the autonomic nervous system or through secretions of the pituitary gland 
  • Coordinating system between the nervous and endocrine system 

Regulates the body by :

  • Controlling temperature
  • Blood solute concentration 
  • Thirst and Hunger 
  • Sleep
  • Helps to control the secretion of hormones from endocrine glands, also directly connected to the pituitary gland. 
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  • Located between cerebral cortex and the midbrain

Important as a :

  • Relay centre 
  • Sending and recieving information to and from the cerebral cortex

Correlates systems such as; 

  • Conciousness 
  • Sleep
  • Sensory Interpretation 
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Important for the; 

  • Learning
  • Reasoning 
  • Personality

Part of the Limbic System (Set of brain structures located on top of the brainstem and under the cortex) so is also important for;

  • Forming new memories 
  • Connecting emotions and senses (e.g. smell and sound) it then connects these senses to the memories. 

Horseshoe shape as one side in right hemisphere and the other side in the left hemisphere. 

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controls the maintenance of;

  • Posture
  • Coordination of voluntary musclular activity (e.g. writing) 

Involved in:

  • Learning of tasks that require coordinated movements (e.g. riging a bike or playing an instrument)
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  • Largest section of the brain
  • Has a left and right hemisphere which are connected by a bundle of nerves called the Corpus Callosum 
  • The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum. It's made up of grey matter and contains cell bodies 
  • While the inner cerebrum is made up of white matter and contains myelinated axons

Controls all advanced mental activities such as; 

  • Thinking 
  • Language 
  • Emotions
  • Personality 
  • Planning 
  • Memory

Each cerebral hemisphere contains 4 lobes; parietal, frontal, occipital and temporal

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Frontal Lobe (cerebrum)

Integral role in the;

  • Memory formation
  • Emotions 
  • Decision Making / Reasoning
  • Personality 
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Temporal Lobe

Integral role in:

  • Hearing 
  • Organisation / Comprehension of language
  • Information retrieval (Memory formation and Memories)
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Occipital Lobe

Integral role in :

  • Processing 
  • Integration
  • Interpretation of visual stimuli 
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Parietal Lobe

Integral role in; 

  • Senses
  • Integrates sensation
  • Makes sense of arithmitic, writing and spelling
  • Spacial awareness and perception

Proprioception= Awareness of body/body parts in space and in relation to each other 

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