- Electromagnetic attraction between polar molecules in when hydrogen is bound to oxygen.
- Not a Covelent bond as they don't share electrons.
- It is an attraction between the positive and negative poles of charged atoms.
- It is a polar molecule because oxygen atoms are slightly negative and hydrogen atoms are slightly positive.
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- Cohesion - Water molecules bind more which creates surface tension
- Resistance to force applied by insects - lets them walk on water.
- Movement of columns of water againest gravity in the xylem
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Ice less dense than water
- Ice - Below 4°C, hydrogen bonds lengthen pushing water molecules apart.
- Ice layer insulates the body of water reducing the rate of heat loss.
- Stable envrioment for aquaticc organisms through the winter.
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- Good solvent - ions disociate because they are polar.
- Transport of molecules and ions around an organism/plasma membranes.
- Flow occurs due to hydrogen bonds constantly forming/breaking
- Non-polar molecules cannot dissolve
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High Specific Heat Capacity
- High specific heat capacity - hydrogen bonds need a lot of energy to break them
- Thermal stability - aqautic organisms do not have a great fluctuation in the temperature
- Stable temperature needed for enzyme reactions
- Helps buffer temperature changes due to chemical reactions
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Liquid at Room Temperature
- Liquid at room temperature - High BPt
- Provides habitats for living things
- Forms a major component of tissues in living things
- Provide a reaction medium for chemcial reactions
- Provide an effective transport medium
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High Latent Heat of Vaporization
- High latent heat of vapourization - high amount of energy is needed to change state
- Effective cooling in plants and animals
- A lot of heat energy is taken away when a small number of water molecules evaporate.
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