Lexis: the vocabulary of a language (the total stock of words)
In both written and spoken language there will be words that share a similar topic or focus. For example, in a mobile phone advert, there will be words such as 'SMS' 'text' and 'battery life' - words that are linked this way are known as a lexical field.
Semantics: the study of how meaning is created through words and phrases. A word will have a literal meaning but it can also be associated with other meanings.
For example, the word red is a colour, but can also be associated with danger.
Grammar: the system of rules that governs how words and sentences are constructed.
There are three parts to this list:
- a system that groups words into classes according to their function (e.g. nouns or verbs)
- a system of rules about how these types of words function in relation to each other (syntax)
- the individual units that make up whole words (morphology)
Phonology:the study of sounds of words in english - how they're produced and how they're combined to make words.
Includes Non Verbal Aspects of Speech - features of spoken language such as; pace, rhythm, stress and intonation.
Pragmatics: sometimes called language in use. hared and implied meanings, conversational maxims, deixis.
Deixis: lexical items that 'point' towards something and place words in context. E.g. put 'that' chair over 'there'.
Graphology: the study of the appearance of the writing and the effect this has on a text.
Includes things like the typeface, positioning of text on the page, and the relationship between the text and images.
Discourse: an extended piece of spoken or written language, made up of more than one utterance (in spoken language) or more than one sentence (in written language).