Linear, 4 Models and Excellence Theory

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  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 29-04-14 16:15

Linear Communications SMCRE and Limitations

Lee Edwards (2006)

'Early communications and theories were relatively simple, focusing on the actual process of one-way persuasive communication and consisting of the following concepts:

-> Sender (who) -> Message (says what) -> Channel (which) -> Reciever (whom) -> Effect (what)

  • Does not attend to the environment in which communications takes place
  • Assumes that messages are recieved 
  • Does not consider peoples different interpretations of messages
  • Does not consider recipients communicating amongst themselves
  • Assumption that messages always have effects
  • Noise = Distractions
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Linear - Freud Communications

'Passion drives their staff to the kind of brilliant ideas that cut through to consumers facing a wall of marketing noise the kind of cut through that inspires the consumer to believe in you; to buy your brand'

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Shirley Harrison's Model

(See mind map for diagram)

Incorporates feedback and noise

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Linear - Encoding and Decoding

  • Formulates messages - Encoding
  • Readers, listeners, viewers interpret messages - Decoding
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Excellence Theory

  • Strategic management
  • Seperate from marketing
  • Direct reporting relationship to senior management
  • Single, integrated department
  • Two-way symmetrical model
  • Senior practitioner's managerial role
  • Potential of public relations department
  • Schema for public relations
  • Equal opportunities
  • Activism
  • Top management support
  • Supportive organisational context
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Four Models of PR - Grunig and Hunt (1984)

  • Press agency
  • Public information
  • Two-way asymmetric
  • Two-way symmetric
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Model One: Press Agency/Publicity

  • Propaganda
  • One-way: a form of 'telling'
  • Involves information that is 'incomplete, distorted or half-truth'
  • Source --> receiver
  • Lack of research, more gut feeling, informal
  • Issue: Misleading the public goes against CIPR code of conduct
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Model Two: Public Information

  • Dissemination of 'objective' information
  • Another form of 'telling' but one in which truth important
  • Source --> receiver
  • Limited research
  • Consideration: Information to the public still conveyed through one-way communication
  • 'Truth' is subjective
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Model Three: Two-Way Asymmetric

  • Seek to persuade target publics to accept organisation's point of view
  • Use research into attitudes and behaviours to persuade
  • Notes definitions of PR that emphasise persuasion
  • Two-way: imbalanced
  • Source --> <-- Receiver + Feedback
  • But the organisation does not change as a result
  • Still common
  • Persuasion not ideal in this model
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Model Four: Symmetric PR

  • Two-Way communication that is a dialogue
  • Note definitions of PR that emphasise mutual understanding
  • Most sophisticated - leading to change in both audience and organisations position - supposed keystone of excellence - ethical and effective
  • Key criticism: Viewed as idealistic, vested interests distort balanced communications, social, and environmental context of PR means there is a focus on corporate interests
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New Model of Symmetry

  • Builds on concepts from game-theory negotiation, conflicts and cooperation and balancing interests
  • How to create win-win zones
  • (See mind map for diagram)

1. Pure asymmetry model = communication used to dominate public

2) Pure cooperation model = Communication used to convince dominant coalition to cave into public's position

3) Two-way model = Communication used to move public, dominant coalition or both to acceptable 'win-win' zone

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