Language Change: Punctuation

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Punctuation in the Late Modern Period

Commas more liberally used, as well as colons ans semi-colons to separate clauses, thus creating more sentence complexity

Apostrophes extended to signify the possessive and to represent missing letters.

Speech marks were beginning to be used

Contractions: proclitic contractions such as "'tis"

The Ampersand (&) originating as a ligature of 'E' and 'T' and combined in the abbreviation of the Latin term et cetera as &c.

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Changing Graphology

Graphic symbols now often have a semantic function, such as emoticons.

Early manuscripts were hand-written. Then printed fonts developed and mass production replaces the laborious handwritten process for major works.

Today, we have greater graphological freedom with the ability to adapt word-processed texts easily for a specific audience and purpose. Features of the 18th century were mainly limited to italics to express stress, etc.

There are lot of influences, such as technology. In newspapers and such publications, the use of photos to legitimise their findings are becoming more and more common, due to ease and immediate communication. In terms of immediate communication, things such as the date, title and even time if it's online ("last updated 7:34, Saturday 1st March") is far more common and exact than the 1700s.

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Grammar in the Late Modern Period

Negation - constructing a negative - use of dummy auxiliary verb 'do' e.g. 'I know not'.

Syntax differs from modern usage, such as the adverb coming after the verb.

Contractions are more common

'Be' often formed the subjunctive instead of 'were'

Of-genitive - e.g. 'The bonnet of a car' instead of 'the car's bonnet'

Third person pronoun 'he' acting as gender neutral

Pronoun 'whom'

Now, comparatives and superlatives are formed by using 'more' and 'less' rather than 'er' and 'est'

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