Key issues from all 5 AS approaches and 3 A2 approaches

Key issues from all of the previous approaches throughout the 2 years - some of them double up as the key issues for one AS and one A2 approach

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COGNITIVE & CRIMINAL - Is eye witness testimony re

+ Loftus & Pamler 1974 study - "smashed" question lead to a faster estimate of speed than "contacted"

- Yuille & Cutshall 1986 study - leading questions did not affect the memory of real-life witnesses

-Weapon focus: a witness to a crime diverting his or her attention to the weapon the perpetrator is holding, thus leaving less attention for other details in the scene 

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SOCIAL - Why do people blindly obey orders?

Agentic state: people don't feel personally responsible for their actions

Autonomous state: people feel personally responsible for their actions

+ Milgram 1963 study

+ Hofling 1966 study

+ Tajfel 1971 study - boys showed in-group favouritism even when groups were randomly formed

- Hard to measure obedience in a valid way

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LEARNING & CLINICAL - Are token economies effectiv

+ Hobbs & Holt 1976 study 

- Rice et al 1990 study

- Social control issue: may be run for the benefit of the people in charge of the hospital

- May not be generalisable to behaviour outside of the hospital

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PSYCHODYNAMIC - Do dreams have meaning?

+ Little Hans study - dreams of playing with dolls represented identifying with his father

- Biological approach: reorganisational theory - dreams are a random by-product of the brain sorting through the day's thoughts

- Recurring dreams? Can't be "sorting through" since information keeps coming back?

- Freud: a dream is a fulfillment of a wish

- Nightmares? Cannot be someone's wish to be frightened?

Dreamwork: the process of converting latent content into manifest content

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BIOLOGICAL & CHILD - Is autism an "extreme male br

+ Male brains grow more quickly and are heavier than girls - autistic brains grow quicker and are even heavier

+ Males develop language slower - autistic people develop language even slower

+ 3/4 of autistic people are male

A childhood disorder - affects the ability to build relationships

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