COGNITIVE & CRIMINAL - Is eye witness testimony re
+ Loftus & Pamler 1974 study - "smashed" question lead to a faster estimate of speed than "contacted"
- Yuille & Cutshall 1986 study - leading questions did not affect the memory of real-life witnesses
-Weapon focus: a witness to a crime diverting his or her attention to the weapon the perpetrator is holding, thus leaving less attention for other details in the scene
SOCIAL - Why do people blindly obey orders?
Agentic state: people don't feel personally responsible for their actions
Autonomous state: people feel personally responsible for their actions
+ Milgram 1963 study
+ Hofling 1966 study
+ Tajfel 1971 study - boys showed in-group favouritism even when groups were randomly formed
- Hard to measure obedience in a valid way
LEARNING & CLINICAL - Are token economies effectiv
+ Hobbs & Holt 1976 study
- Rice et al 1990 study
- Social control issue: may be run for the benefit of the people in charge of the hospital
- May not be generalisable to behaviour outside of the hospital
PSYCHODYNAMIC - Do dreams have meaning?
+ Little Hans study - dreams of playing with dolls represented identifying with his father
- Biological approach: reorganisational theory - dreams are a random by-product of the brain sorting through the day's thoughts
- Recurring dreams? Can't be "sorting through" since information keeps coming back?
- Freud: a dream is a fulfillment of a wish
- Nightmares? Cannot be someone's wish to be frightened?
Dreamwork: the process of converting latent content into manifest content
BIOLOGICAL & CHILD - Is autism an "extreme male br
+ Male brains grow more quickly and are heavier than girls - autistic brains grow quicker and are even heavier
+ Males develop language slower - autistic people develop language even slower
+ 3/4 of autistic people are male
A childhood disorder - affects the ability to build relationships