Batch Processing

All of the Data is processed together

The Data is usually idetical in format 

The process is usually done over night.

If there is an error in the processing then there can be a delay iin processing.

Uses a coding interface


The main disadvantage of batch processing is the time delay between collecting the input data and getting an output. It can also be frustrating to find out only later that a batch run has failed due to a data input problem.

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Interactive Processing

Inputs are noted by the computer, but it deals with them after a short delay. It spends that delay handling other inputs and managing data movements.

Feedback and Response

One transaction at a time

The user interface is very important with interactive processing. It must be clear, intuitive, easy to use and responsive. Usually a fair bit of data validation also takes place to ensure the correct input data is present. For instance the form may check that you have entered an address or telephone number.

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Real-Time Processing

Real time processing is usually found in systems that use computer control.

This processing method is used when it is essential that the input request is dealt with quickly enough so as to be able to control an output properly.

The user gets immediate feedback.

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Satellite Phone Call

  1. The satellite phone functions better with a clear line of sight
  2. The signal is taken from the phone to the satellite
  3. It is then beamed from the satellite to the base station.
  4. Where it then joins the normal phone network 
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Mobile Phone Call

  1. The Caller dial the land line number from the mobile phone
  2. A call request is sent by microwaves to the base station transceiver for the cell that the mobile phone is currently connected to.
  3. This request is passed on to the mobile switching center.
  4. The mobile switching center will check the status of the caller.
  5. The mobile switching center connects the call through the public switched telephone network and allocates a frequency to the mobile phone
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HCI Colour Part 1

Good Colour Choice

Helps create an attractive interface: Soft gradients, interesting patterns, good contrast

Colour palette can reflect the corporate image : Uses the same colour choice as all other company material

Colours helps identify where you need to input data e.g. Input boxes with very light grey text inside is a popular method

Blocks of colour can visually separate sections

Certain colour combinations are considered to help a dyslexic person read the text a bit easier. Avoiding some colour combinations may assist with colour blindness

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HCI Colour Part 2

Bad Choice

Poor colour choice can be very tiring on the eyes

Incoherent colour choices can lead to a confusing interface e.g. too many colours, poor contrast etc.

Poor choice of colours can make it difficult if you are colour blind

If there are corporate colour guidlines and you do not follow them, then it may impair the brand image

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HCI Layout Part 1

Good Choice effects

Produces a coherent design and so looks more professional

Simpler for users if items are always in the same place. e.g. search box top right, menu left

Learning one product within the range means they quickly understand how other applications in the suite work as well.

Helps build and enforce a corporate image

Reduces wasted time as users don't have to search for the feature they are after.

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HCI Layout Part 2

Bad Choice Effects

If the layout is not constant the user may become confused on how to use the system or website.

If the layout is inconsistent then errors can be made.

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HCI Quantity of Information

Don´t presents too much information. Too much information can be duanting for the user and make a difficult interface. 

Use a logical order-Group information into logical blocks. Use multiple pages if need be. This will be simpler than one huge interface that tries to show everything at once.

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How does the user perceive the signals from a computer?

Red text or warning signs indicate stop. Green text or no problems indicate go. Perception can also change based on sound signals
Happy DING might mean something saved correctly. Sharp CLUNK might mean something didn’t save properly.

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Designing an Interface to hold the users attention.


Important information needs to be clear and obvious so the user doesn’t get fed up looking for it!

Looking at layout and aesthetics.

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Importance of designing a system model which match

If the system responds in the same way that the user predicts that it will, they will be:

  • Confident in its use
  • Have a greater understanding of where to find options, menus, etc
  • Reinforce their ideas and create transferable skills
  • Improving the time they take to learn new software 
  • The user will have their own model:
  • If the models match, the user learns faster and makes less mistakes
  • If the models do not match then the user will make mistakes and have difficulty using the product.
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Mental Models

An effective user interface takes into consideration:

  • The Fact that all mental models are different.
  • Mental Models are effected by user experience.

The Designer must:

  • Ensure that the interface translate the intention of the user onto the interface.
  • The action of the computer should match (merge) that anticipated by the user.

The actions of the computer could be translated through visual clues or by sound.

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Understand how to describe change management and f

  • Staff capability
  • Staff view
  • Systems
  • Equipment
  • Accommodation

What is the process of change management.

  1. Need to decide is it necessary.
  2. Reasons of the change shared with people within the organisation
  3. Detailed implementation plan with dates, training
  4. Implement the plan

What is the purpose of change management

  • To ensure that the change takes place smoothly and effectively, with all employees knowing what is being done.
  • To ensure that members of an organisation are happy about the change and will comply with the change.
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Importance of communication


  • Change that occurs without communication is doomed to fail from the start.
  • All communication that takes place should be:
  1. Continuous
  2. Relevant
  • There should be no secrets or surprises
  • All changes should be explain clearly to the staff that it will affect.
  • When change does take place, and staff are aware of a possible change, the change be communicated quickly.
  • The communication should aim to eliminate most fears from the staff.
  • If change is not communicated quickly, rumors may start circulating which can cause staff to be fearful and then may become resistant to the change
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The importance of communication part 2

RULES Communicate the following

  1. Why the change is taking place
  2. Make sure people are fully aware of the benefits
  3. How will change affect staff
  4. Explain that if new skills are required then training will be provided
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The importance of consultation

  • After the intended changes have been proposed, it is important to have a period of consultation.
  • During the consultation period, staff should be able to communicate any fears or possible improvements to the suggested change.
  • allowing the consultation period also has two benefits for managers
  1. Gets people involved and allows them to take some owner ship
  2. Those who don't get involved can't complain.
  • It is important to have consultations because it can make staff feel valued
  • In large organisations, consultations take place via trade unions
  • In education, consultation can take place through union representatives and the consultation window remains open 
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The importance of consultation

  • Having consultation is worthless though if staff views are not taken on board. This can make people feel resistant to the change.
  • If staff views are taken on board people will be happier with the change.
  • If a suggested change isn't accepted then the managers should be able to provide a valid reason why it wouldn't be implemented
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The importance of participation

  • Motivation is Key
    • Give them and awards
  • Although staff participation is important, it is also just as important not to get too many staff to participate as this could cause conflict as there will be lots of ideas.
  • one way around this is to have working groups
  • Working groups allow small numbers of people
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MIS-Management Information System

An organisation's management information system is one that takes in both internal and external data and then converts that data into useful information that allows management to make decisions.


Decentralization is one of the biggest advantages; it allows monitoring of operations at low levels and frees up resources for departmental managers to devote time to strategic activities. Coordination of specialized projects and activities is much better and decision makers in the organization are aware of issues and problems in all departments. Another advantage of MIS is that it minimizes information overload,


Allocation of budgets for MIS upgrades, modifications and other revisions can be quite tricky at times. If budgets are not allocated uniformly or as per immediate requirements, key functionalities might get effected and benefits might not be realized consistently. Integration issues with legacy systems can affect the quality of output and vital business intelligence reports

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Expert Systems

An expert system is an application that seeks to mimic the knowledge and experience of a human expert. An expert system is designed to provide reasonable answers when given a set of conditions about the problem in hand.


Expert advice available all the time

Knowledge of expert staff can be captured to some extent before they move on.

Can be used as a training aid to increase the expertise of staff

Makes rational decisions without any emotional overhead

Does not get tired or overworked.

Efficient way of getting answers as it does not involve additional help staff e.g. automated help systems

Natural language interface would make the expert system more human friendly

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Expert Systems Part 2


Usually only covers a narrow range of knowledge

A lot of effort and cost has to go into making a good expert system

Not as good as having human experts to hand.

Most expert systems are menu driven which does not deal very well with ambiguous problems.

Advanced interfaces such as natural language processing still has some way to go before they are truly effective.

Does not learn from mistakes unless user feedback and human maintenance is part of its ongoing development

Unlikely to come up with creative solutions

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