Types of information - Qualitative
Cannot be collected in numerical terms
To help a business understand staff, customers and to develop products.
Customers panels, focus groups, observation of behavioural patterns, surveys.
Types of information - Quantitative
Can be expressed numercially
- Find trends
- Size of markets
- Seasonal variations
- Productivity rates or levels of labour turnover
What is information processing?
What is Information Processing?
Can be paper based = Manual
Can be IT based = Electronic
Steps of information processing & efficiency:
- Storing information- Stored in a logical order? Easy to reieve and accessible? Easy to edit
- Processing information- Text manipulation? Mathematical manipulation? Classification by categorising data?
- Retrieving data- method used?
- Information dissemination- (to spread infor widely) Manual? Electronically?
- Validation and Verification- Checks of original source? Fact or opinion? Who wrote it?
- Ring binders
- Card indexes
- Document files
- Box files
- Filing cabinets
- Low risk of hacking
- Access can be easily restricted
- Cheaper to set up
- Requires large amounts of space
- Easy to manually misfile
- Data access can be slow
- Memory sticks
- Speed of access
- Automatic validation checks
- Less storage space required
- Volatile memory - loses its contents if power supply is lost
- Expensive to set up
- Media (examples above) can become corrupted.
Downward communication- Flows from higher to lower hierarchical levels
Upward- Flows from lower to higher hierarchical levels
Horizontal- Flows between employees on sames hierarchical level.
Qualitative information- Is data an individuals' opinions and tastes.
Quantitative information- Is expressed in numerical terms so is measurable.
How does information flow in an organsiation?
Vertically- Down and up the hierarchy.
Horizontally- Acorss the hierarchy & within and across functional departments.