ICT Unit 2: Solving Problems With ICT

All of my notes for the exam combined for your convenience!!

Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Susie
  • Created on: 09-05-14 09:48


A check to ensure the data is reasonable or allowable.

Learn all validation checks:

¾ Data type check – checking the correct item of data is entered in a field. For example, wages is currency.


¾ Presence check – checking that data has been entered in a cell. For example, title or gender must have an answer.


¾ Check digit – self-calculating check to ensure large numbers are entered correctly.


¾ Format check – checking data is in the correct style. For example, date of birth needs to be in dd/mm/yyyy.


¾ Range check – checking the data fits between two values. Identify the problem, explain how it could have happened, what check (range), and then specify the appropriate range.


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Staying Safe Online

Disclosing Information

  • Do not give personal details
  •  People may not be who they say they are
  •  They could be people that want to harm you
  •  Do not meet


Misuse of Images

  •  You could be identified from a picture alone
  •  Image could be altered
  •  Image might be passed on or posted onto inappropriate websites

Inappropriate Language

  • No swearing
  •  No offensive phrases
  •  No lies about others
  •  No cyberbullying
  •  Ensure material can be read by anyone


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~Read the question

~Look at the context



  • Light
  •   Movement
  •  Pressure
  •  Temperature
  •  pH
  • Sound
  • PIR
  • Smoke
  •  Make/break sensor (used in alarms)
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School ICT Systems

IT systems that allow organisations to store and utilise large amounts of data.

SEN –Special Educational Needs

Behavioural Management



Examinations – what exams you are entered for, what you have or haven’t done, target grades.


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School Regestration Systems

They want to know how the data is captured.

  •   Paper based systems – simple, but can be changed and forged.
  • Computer based systems real time processing – simple, easy to use, but hacking and loosing data can occur.
  • Swipe cards / Smart Cards real time processing – fast, need no manual labour but can be misplaced, people can steal them, expensive
  • OMR – Optical Mark Reader – very fast, faster and more accurate than paper based systems but records can be lost, mistakes can be made, not very fast
  •  Biometrics – finger print scanning or thumb print scanning or retina scan – cannot be forged, but is expensive
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Data Logging

Often used when data needs to be collected in remote or inhospitable conditions.

The Advantages of manual methods are:

  •  Readings can be much more accurate
  •  Data can be logged at any time – no need for manual input
  •  Humans no longer have to do boring, time consuming, repetitive work.
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Data Logging CONT


Logging Interval (AKA Logging Period) – total period of logging.


Frequency of logging – The time interval between logging (between measurements).


Purposes of logging:

  • Collecting scientific data
  • Monitoring hospital patients
  • Monitoring air quality
  • Collecting weather data
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Emerging Technologies

These could be:

  • Apps – french app to translate.
  •  Tablets –use on a geography field trip as a map and a camera.
  •  Smart Devices – use in P.E lesson to take heart rate.
  •  Augmented Reality Glasses – in ICT you could use them in a game.
  • Podcasts – use in revision to learn in an auditory way.


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Home & Personal Communication


A satellite sends data signals between different continents.

What do you need to connect to the internet?

A modem (modulator - demodulator).

Dial up Modem


  • It was very slow.
  •  You could not use the phone at the same time.

Broadband Modem

Is better because:

  • Can use the phone at the same time.
  •  Download files at high speeds.
  •  You can watch TV programs.
  •     You can listen to the radio.



Sometimes called Wi-Fi. Use a router to allow multiple devices to connect.


  •   You don’t have to plug in any cables (clearer work area & much safer as you don’t trip up).
  •  You can work anywhere there is a wireless connection.
  •  Less cost – you don’t have to put wires in.


  • It is much easier to hack a wireless network.
  • Lack of signal in some areas.

Bluetooth and GIS (Geographical Information System)

Bluetooth is a way of sharing files over short distances.

GIS is a use of geographical data – capturing, managing, managing or displaying data.

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A database is an electronic way of storing information.



  • Less likely to lose data.
  •  More accurate because of validation checks.




Example of use



Surname = ’Jones’ Lists all the people who have the surname Jones.


Is not equal to

Code <> 3 would list all of the codes other than code 3.

Greater than

Qty > 20 lists the details where the field Qty is over 20.

Less than

Age < 18 lists all the details where the age is less than 18.


Greater than or equal to

Price >= 20 lists all the details where the price is greater than or equal to 20.


Less than or equal to

Date <= 01/12/10 means the date must be on or before 01/12/10.


Where the data is only listed where both the conditions are true

Surname = ‘Jones’ AND Age < 16 would show the details where the surname is Jones and the age  is less that 16.


Where the data is only listed where either or both conditions are true.

Surname = ‘Jones’ OR Age < 16 would show the details where the surname is Jones, or the age is 16, or both.


Where a perfect match is not needed – perfect and close matches are listed

Like Surname = Jon will list the surnames starting with the letters Jon.

Sorts on a Database

A Key Field is a unique identifier or value.


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