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Page 1

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1. Computers, data and information
A comp uter
i
s an
information processing machine. Comp u ters process
data to produce information. T he
se t
s o f
i
n str u cti
o n s that
hu ma ns gi
ve
c omp uter
s are
ca ll…

Page 2

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Hardware i
s t
he name
that
i
s gi
ven to
an y
pa r
t of
a computer
that you
can
a ct
ua ll
y t
ouch.
An i
n di
vi
d ual
pi
ece of
hardw are
is c al
led
a device. The
basic…

Page 3

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The
ke yboard
is
the
mo st
commo n
t
ype of
i
n put
devi
ce .
Ordi
nary
computer
keyboa r
ds have t
heir
keys
ar
ranged i
n
a si
milar
way t
o
those
on a
t
ypew r
it
er.
This
w ay
o…

Page 4

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A graphics
tabl
e cons i st
s of
a f
lat
su r
f ace
an d
a
pe n,
or
styl
us, w hi
c h
can be
u sed t
o
p roduce
fr
e eh a nd
d r
aw i
ng s o r
t…

Page 5

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A bar code i
s
a
se t
of
l
i
n e s
o f diff
e r
en t
thi
c knesses that
rep r
e sent
a numb er.
Bar
C o de Rea ders are
u sed
t o
in pu t
d at
a
from…

Page 6

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Validation
V ali
dati
o n chec ks are
carri
ed
ou t
by
s of
tware t
o ma ke
s ure t
hat dat
a wh i
c h h as
b een entered i
s
allowable and sensible.
D at
a
that i
s n ot
se…

Page 7

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Hash total
H a sh t
ota ls
are used t
o check
t ha t
g r
o ups
o f
numb ers
ha ve
been
inp ut
cor rectl
y.

A ha sh
to tal
i
s t
he
sum o f
a
gro up of
n umb…

Page 8

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F ew er key
press es
a r
e need ed
w hen e nte ri
n g
a va l
u e
in t
he f
ie ld
so t
h er
e i
s
l
ess
ch an ce
o f
t
h e wrong keys
b ei…

Page 9

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lo st
whe n t
h e
c omp uter i
s s w i
tched of
f.
Me mo r
y w hi
ch is
n ot
wip ed
clean when
t he
comp u t
e r
is turned off
i s
c all
ed nonvolatile memory.

PROM…

Page 10

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WORM (
Wr i
te Onc e ,
Re a d Man y)
d i
sks w hi
ch can
ha ve
da t
a wri
tt
e n t
o t
h em
j
u st
on ce.
MagnetoOptical d i
s ks w h ich
ca n have…

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