Social Diversity - differences between groups of peop;e in society due to various factors (eg. disability, social class, religion)
Population - is affected by birth rate - number of births per 1,000 of population, death rate - number of deaths per 1,000 of population (increasing life expectancy has influenced this) and net migration - increase/decrease after imigration (number entering country) and emigration (number leaving),is balanced out.
Most densely populated areas are in London and the least are in Scotland.
Untill the mid 1900s, natural increase was the main cause for population growth. Since then, net migration has been an increasingly important factor.
Push and pull factors - Push factors are circumstances that encourage or force a personto migrate (eg.unemployment or political disagreement). Pull factors are incentives that encourage a person to move (eg. increased job opportunity or better education).
Asylum seekers - those whom the UK has a responsibility not to send back to a country where they would face hunder/persecution. Many suggest that migrants who claim asylum are in fact economic migrants, hoping for a better life in Britian.
Factors affecting migration
Migration - pre 1945
Examples are Nego slaves and Jews suffering from Narzi persecution.
Migration - post 1945
Immigration from countries, mainly Carribean, was encouraged to meet post-war labour shortages (eg. nurses and transport).
Prisoners of war and soldiers - stayed (ie.many Polish people settled)
Enlargement of the EU - lead to increased immigration, a right of all EU citizens. For examlpe, Poland. However half of the 1 million Poles in Britian (workers and their familes) are expected to return home due to pull factors (strengthening of Polish economy/rise in salary) and push factors (lack of employment/fall in value of British pound).
Emigration to Old Commonwealth countries (eg. Australia and New Zealand) to aquire fresh opportunities.
There are now restrictions placed on immigration from Commonwealth countries and further restrictions on non-EU immigration (must have offer of employment and have certain professions/skills/savings).
How far is Britian a multicultural society?
The UK was once portrayed as an integrated community in which values did not differ between different social groups, whatever race, ethnicity, religion or language. Since then,social class is less important, an urban-ural divide has become more important (eg. fox hunting opinions between country and town folk) and th ethnic minority population has significantly increased.
Ethnic minorites - including all groups except catagories of white people (nearly half live in London, the least in areas such as in the South-West)
Religious diversity - immigration has been a key factor leading to increase is support of the Islamic beliefs. Events of the 9/11 have alened changes that have already taken place in society.
Multiculturalism - all cultures are shared and celebrated, no one culture is dominant. Integregation is by shared values, not cultures. all ethnic groups feel that they have place and are accepted and included. Most believe multiculturalism makes Britian a better place.
Multicultural society/community - a society/community that compromises a wide range of ethnic groups and cultures. Though the UK has become mulicultural, most people do not live in multicultural communities.
Views of multiculturalism
Assimilation - expectation for immigrants to leave their traditional habits and lifestyle behind and adopt to British customs and way of life, instead. Members of ethnic origin born in Britian should consider themselves British and not look to country of family origin for identity. Absorption into dominant culture. Favoured by political Right.
Integration - there should be a sense of belonging, without the meaning that cultural traditions have to be sacrificed. The retain their identity and customs, but nonetheless take pride in being British and respect British values.
Labour - sypathetic to multiculturalism, placing empathsis on the rights of minorities to preserve and celebrate their culture whilst encouraging their participation as citizens - integrating without assimilation.
Arguements against multiculturalism - encourages faith schools, cultural ghettoes and cultural communities, which encourages diversity and feelings of isolation from society.If families continue to speak their own native language, this excludes them from the rest of society and encourages racist (usually involving the idea that one's race is superior and has right to rule over another) attitueds.
Stereotyping - making generalisations about/labelling a group of people to which we do not belong, making assumptions that may be based on false or inaccurate infomation. Most often used negatively to devalue individuals or groups of people, which can often lead to social prejudice and persecution.
Advertising and media - play a huge part in stereotyping. For example, women are portrayed as sex-objects or housewives in advertisement and black ethnic minority groups being involved in crime and violence in soaps and drama.