Nature of royal supremacy

  • Change in relationship between English monarchy and subjects
  • Henry VIII wanted annulment from Catherine of Aragon - not a religious reformer (advisors had more redical views)
  • Reformist idea in London and South East, other regions = traditional catholic practices and beliefs predominant
  • Impact greater in South West and North
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Cromwell's changes

  • 1535 - appointed as Vicegerent of the Spirituals - power in Church and used it to alter its doctrine - propaganda campaign = supremacy
  • New bishops appointed e.g. Hugh Latimer
  • Preaching controlled through govt. liences, clergy ordered to give sermons against pope
  • April 1535 - royal letters sent to all bishops, nobility and JPs, ordering them to imprison clergymen who continued to support pope
  • Act of 10 Articles (1536) - doctrine of new Enlgish Church, in line with Catholic belief, article on Eucharist = sacraments decreased from 7 to 3
  • Cromwell issued set of Injunctions to English clergy in 1536, attacked traditional practices, banned Holy Days
  • Undermined authority of pope, met with opposition
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Opposition to break with Rome and Henry's response

  • Parliamentary legislation = legal break with Rome, support of people
  • Act of Supremacy made provision for an oath
  • 1534 Treason Act - refused to swear an oath = traitors
  • Sir Thomas More, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester = executed in 1535
  • Court = conservative faction emerged, restoration of Catholicism - Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Thomas, Lord Darct, John, Lord Hussey
  • Saw Princess Mary as natural firgurehead
  • 1535-6 - court based plot sought to remove Henry and replace with Mary
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Dissolution of the smaller monasteries impact 1536

  • Monasteries and convents
  • Monastic orders - Benedictines and Cistercians followed rules of poverty, chastity and obedience
  • Becoming monk/nun = voaction by God - supported poor, elderly and sick
  • Important centres of education and training and learning
  • Local employers and landlords
  • By 1530s = 900 religious homes and 12,000 people in religious orders
  • Local lifeline to North - social and economic hardship
  • Monks and nuns = obedience to pope in Rome
  • Suspicious belief in purgatory
  • Wealthy - valuable source of income for him and could reward supporters
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Process of dissolution

  • Began in 1535 with Volor Ecclesiaticus - surveyed all Church property and revealed to Henry their wealth
  • 1537 and 1547 - dissolution raised £1.3 million
  • Valor followed by visitations of monasteries by commissioners e.g. Thomas Leigh and Richard Layton
  • Find evidence of corruption - both used by Cromwell in 1536 Act of Parliament = authorised dissolution of monasteries worth less than £200 per annum
  • Destruction of buildings - lead stripped from roofs and melted down, stained glass and images smashed
  • Rebellion broke out in Louth (Lincolnshire) i 1536 - people built new spire for Parish Church - feared it would be demolished
  • Rebellioon spread to Yorkshire and other northern areas
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