Parliament under Henry VII

PARLIAMENT ORGANISATION - 2 chambers, unelected House of Lords and elected House of Commons, 2 MPs represent each county, voting = property with income of 40 shillings a year

  • Forced to call parliament periodically - needed grants of taxation for wars
  • Summoned 7 times
  • Granted requested money without argument until 1504 - forced to accept smaller sum than asked for (Commons)
  • 1st parliamnt held after Battle of Bosworth - acknowledged claim to be king and passed series of Acts of Attainder to convict enemies
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Parliament under Henry VIII before 1503-1529

  • Grant taxation for wars, met 4 times
  • By1517, initial gains made in wars against France and Scotlans had been lost - parliament less keen to give him money, feared rebellion
  • 1525 - led to Wolsey meeting opposition from Commons - £288,814 in taxation, £260,000 in unpaid loans, Wolsey met with silence
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Tudor Church before 1529

  • Roman Catholic Church - highly powerul
  • Head = Pope, power to appoint senior Churchmen, decisions based on monarchs wishes
  • Baptisms, Confirmations, marriages and funerals held here
  • Church fetials e.g. saint days such as Easter
  • Alms - charity for the poor, sick and elderly
  • Taught Heaven, Hell and Purgatory - help souls by good works and confessing sins
  • Mass - important service, celebration of Last Supper (bread and wine into body and blood)
  • Main source of education and learning
  • Services and Bible in Latin
  • Offered boys a chance to rise high in society eg. Thomas Wolsey became Henry VIII's chief minister and Chancellor
  • Anticlericalism = clergymen had multiple posts, little contact with people they were supposed to serve
  • Wealthy and powerful - critised for corruption and exploitation of people's fears - sale of indulgences
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Relations between Church and State before 1529

  • Harmonious, other times rivals
  • Church challenging monarchy, appointment of senior churchmen and Church's rights over sanctuary and benefit of Clergy (BoC)
  • Tension = ability of papacy, intervene with Church affairs
  • Henry VII - needed Church's support, upheld traditional privileges of Church
  • Passed laws tightening control over who could claim BoC
  • Good relationship with papacy - able to ensure appointment of own candidate, John Morton as Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Anticlericalism existed, anticlerical feeling expressed by Hunne Affair, rich London merchant accused of heresy - found dead in Bishop of London's prison - rumoured to have been murdered
  • Henry VIII's reign = loyal Catholic, book = The Defence of the 7 Sacraments, support of Catholic teachings
  • Thomas Wolsey = bishoprics of Durham, Bath and Wells and Tournal, Archbishop of York, 1515 = Cardinal
  • Church lost some independence 1524 and 1529 = 30 monasteries closed, used money to found a school in Ipswich and an Oxford College in his name
  • Loyalties increasingly divided, Henry wanted an annulment, Wolsey fell from power (1529)
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Act of Supremacy (1534)

  • 1527 = wanted an annulment from Catherine of Aragon, fell in love with Anne Boleyn
  • Pope Clement VII under control of Holy Roman Emperor (Catherine's nephew Charles), denied
  • Thomas Cromwell - used parliament to break from papal cntrol and placed Henry at head of English Church, allowed Henry to announce marriage no longer void
  • 1529 = Parliament called, Act of Conditional Restraint of Annates, temporary stop to payments to Rome
  • 1532 = submission of the clergy
  • 1533 = Anne pregnant, Henry desperate to marry her, Cromwell persuaded parliament = Act in Restraint of Appeals, no legal appeals sent to Rome, created Statute Law
  • 1534 = declared 1st marriage invalid and 2nd valid, heirs to throne were their children
  • Used Act of Parliament to give supremacy authority of statute law, disobeyed = punished under law
  • New Treason Ac = redfined as speaking against king and supremacy
  • increased parliaments power - Mary I wanted return to Rome = had to call parliament 
  • All religioud houses forced to take an oath
  • BoC and sanctuary abolished
  • 1535 = appointed Cromwell as Vicegerent in Spirituals
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Church-State relations 1534-58

  • 1536-1539 - dissolution of monasteries, move to Protestantism under Edward VI, Cromwell in charge = commissioners sent to investigate moral, spiritual and financial state of monasteries, Act of Parliament passed to dissolve them with income less than £200 per annum
  • Led to Pilgrimage of Grace
  • Last dissolved in 1540 - land and estates to Crown
  • Henry VIII = £1.3 million, sold land off to members of nobility and gentry e.g. Cecil and Spencer families
  • Cromwell = wanted to promote doctrinal change - Act of 10 Articles (1536), mostly in line with Catholic belief, Article of Eucharist ambigious, no of sacrament decreased from 7 to 3
  • Cromwell issued 2 set of Injunctions to English Clergy - discouraged practices seen as superstitious
  • 1539- Act of 6 Articles - reinforced Catholic doctrines
  • 1543- King's Book published, emphasised traditional practices e.g. mass
  • 1549 = Act of Uniformity introduced Thomas Cramner's new Book of Common Prayer - compulsory in all Church services
  • 1552 - more Protestant version of BoCP released
  • Mary I attempted to reverse changes - Catholicism
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Act of Supremacy (1559)

  • Uniformity bill = restoration of supremacy not affected, reimposed 1552 Prayer Book, added 2 sentences to Communion fr 1549 Prayer Book, interpreted to suit both C and P
  • Supremacy bill = Elizabeth "Supreme Governer" - accepted by including oath of loyalty, penalty for refusing = out of office
  • Passed with votes 21 to 18, absence of Catholic Bishops and Abbot of Westminister
  • Enforced settlement with Oath of Supremacy - only Bishop of Llandaff refused
  • Power over Church increased, appointed Protestant sympathisers e.g. Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Initial acceptance of settlement, 300/8000 refused oath, became basis for Elizabethan Church of England
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Elizabethan Settlement 1559-1563

  • Contained no guaidance on doctrine
  • Left to convocation, stepped in if unhappy
  • 1563 = discussed 42 Articles - became 39 Articles
  • Under Puritan pressure, passed Article 29, denied presence of Communion, forced it to be left out
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Crown and Church, 1559-1603

  • Some radical clergy refused to conform to rule about vestments - puritans simpler style = threat
  • 1566 - ordered Parker to enforce it, issued Book of Advertisements, 37 clergy resigned in London in protest
  • Local groupd set up prophesyings - meetings aimed at encouraging better education by Bible study and Puritan clergy practicing sermons
  • Dangerous - difficult to control and feared spread of rebellion
  • Ordered new Archbishop of Canterbury Edmund Grindal to suppress these, sympathetic so refused, suspended and put of house arrest in 1577
  • Puritans challenged via parliament - able to get elected as MPs and attempt to change Prayer Book - suppressed
  • 2nd = Antony Cope and Peter Wentwork attempted bill to remove Church structure, sent to Tower
  • Elizabeth ordered Speaker of Commons to block settlement talks
  • By 1589 = Puritan challenge decreased, key supporters died
  • Parliament passed Act against Seditious Secretaries (1593), forced anyone who refused to attned Church of England services to exile, if returned = executed
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Crown and Parliament, 1559-1603

  • Called parliament to raise taxation (war with Spain)
  • Main concerns = misue of monopolies and high taxation
  • Local complaints - abuse of royal prerogative, granted for courtiers for profit
  • No competition, forced prices up
  • Parliament of 1597, socio-economic decrease, war with Spain and rebellion in Ireland
  • Some MPs = introduce parliamentary bill, petition Elizabeth instead, no direct challenge
  • Parliament of 1601 - Elizabeth called it for more taxation, did nothing about monopolies, mob burst in to complain
  • Elizabeth met with 140 MPs = golden speech admitted to some lapses of error, still upheld prerogative rights
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Statute Law and Parliamentary Privilege

Statute Law - laws passed by parliament could only be changed by future parliament

  • Before 1530s - parliament instrument of monarch
  • After 1530s - parliament used to create break with Rome
  • Created 'king-in-parliament' = most powerful, king acting in conjunction with parliament, authority over Church
  • Theory - God granted royal supremacy, people gave them authority to assume it through parliament
  • Mary I replealed Act of Supremacy and Elizabeth I reasserted it
  • Parliament had rights and priviledges as power increased - debates on freedom of speech and role in granting taxation
  • Thomas More - speech requesting Henry VIII to allow MPs to speak freely - agreed and allowed to restrict taxation
  • 1530s - Cromwell introduced by-elections, vacancies in commons when parliament in session could be filled
  • 1555 - Mary faced revolt from MPs - refused to accept bill to confiscate land from those exiled from England - MP for Glouchestershire locked Commons door and forced speaker to vote defeating bill
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