3.1 Changes in governance at the centre

How far did the structure and functions of the roy

How far did the structure and functions of the royal household change in the years between 1485-1603?

  • Henry VII
    • Motivated to reform the institution in line with government - 
  • Henry VIII
    • Wolsey's Eltham Ordinances (1526) - Chief minister's first attempt to reform household in line with the evolution of government, suggested downsizing the household to 20 ministers (not implemented until after his death)
    • Rose in importance - many member (friends and servants) had powerful governmental positions (link between the household government grew)
  • Edward VI
    • Dominated by nobles - in order to influence Edward/ control royal patronage
  • Mary I and Elizabeth I
    • Increase in women (especially in the Privy Council) - who held no office/power (husbands exerted influence)
    • Importance declined (under Elizabeth) - matters were discussed in the Privy Council
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How accurate is it to say that the Eltham Ordinanc

How accurate is it to say that the Eltham Ordinances were mainly responsible for the changes in the structure and function of the royal household in the years 1485-1603?

  • Wolsey's Eltham Ordinances (1526) -  
    •  Downsize household/ a council of 20 ministers - 
  • Other factors -
    • Only implemented until after his death - 
    • Rose in importance under Henry VIII - members were friends and servants
    • Changes under Edward VI - dominated by the nobility as Somerset/ Westmorland sought to influence royal control/ patronage
    • Changes under Mary I/ Elizabeth I - decline in the importance of the Privy Council/ household dominated by women with no office (influence through husbands)
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Wolsey, rather than Cromwell, should take credit f

Wolsey, rather than Cromwell, should take credit for establishing the Privy Council in the 1530s.' How far do you agree with this statement?

  • Wolsey's efforts
    • The King's Council - Henry VII (and Edward VI) approved the establishment of a Privy Council (au lieu)
    • Eltham Ordinances (1526) - though not implemented in 1526, were the basis form Cromwell's reforms
    • Lends weight that the Privy Council evolved naturally, as the government became more complex
  • **Cromwell's efforts**
    • 'Tudor revolution in government' - latter half of Henry VIII's reign when Cronwell attempted to modernise/reform government
    • Acts of Union (1536/43) - reform at Wales
    • Catalyst was the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536) - threatened Henry/ his government - Cronwell believed that the emergency was so grave that a council of trusted ministers should be called to deal with it.
  • Neither 
    • Only became a distinct instituion after Cromwell's death - earliest minutes from 1540, collective responsibility evolved then 
    • Cardinal Wolsey architected the changes, and Cromwell implemented them
    • Importance during Edward VI's reign - extremely important, governed the country in the absence of an adult monarch
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How accurate is it to say that in the years 1485-1

How accurate is it to say that in the years 1485-1603 the system of government and administration underwent substantial change?

  • The role and duties of the King's Council -
    • Henry VIII strengthened the machinery of government by approving the establishment of a Privy Council 
  • Cromwell's revolution in government -
  • The Acts of Union (1528/43) - 
    • Passed by the Privy Council, extended the reach and power of cenral government to the distant parts of the realm
  • Collective responsibility -
    • Professional body responsible for exercising authority over every aspect of Tudor adminstration
    • After 1540 everyone had equal status (regardless of titles) which meant that noone could dominate like Wolsey or Cromwell
  • The development of ministerial responsibility - 
    • Duke of Northumberland took the title of Lord President of the Council 
    • Privy council was important for Elizabeth/ Mary
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How accurate is it to say that Sir William Cecil w

How accurate is it to say that Sir William Cecil was mainly responsible for making the Principal Secretaryship the most important office in central government in the years after 1526?

Dealt with correspondence/ general paperwork - part of household staff

  • Henry VIII
    • Thomas Cromwell - became significantly more important, turned it into a political position with the power to run the government e.g. highest office was Lord Chancellor (Cardinal Wolsey/ Sir Thomas More), yet Cromwell (not Sir Thomas Auldley) ran government (1534-40)
    • Chaired meetings, controlled access, monitored correspondence and controlled royal seal
    • Subsequently split (between Sir Thomas Wriothesely and Sir Ralph Sadler) due to increased workload - decline in importance from the 1540s
  • Elizabeth I
    • Sir William Cecil (held for 14 years) - Bureaucrarcy with Edward VI enabled him to outrank the Second Secretary
    • Part of Privy Council - day-to-day government/ controlled written communication - nearest thing to a chief minister - controlled all written communication with the Queen
    • Sir Francis Walsingham (17 years) 
    • Robert Cecil (after 6 years)
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'The key factor in developing and extending the au

'The key factor in developing and extending the authority of the office of Principal Secretary in the years 1485-1603 was the ministerial talent avaliable to the Crown.' How far do you agree with this statement?

  • Ministerial talent avaliable to the crown
    • Thomas Cromwell - rose in prominence because of his ambition/ talent - wasn't originally to run the government (Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Audley, was the highest office) but Cromwell managed to chair Council meetings, control access to the King, monitor his correspondence and take control of the royal seal
    • Sir William Cecil - professional bureaucrat, outranked the Second Secretary. Only possible because of his administrative experience. Nearest post to a chief minister.
    • Sir Francis Walsingham
  • Other factors
    • The increasing complexities of government - dealt with correspondence/ paperwork 
    • Sir Thomas Wriothesley and Sir Ralph Sadler - 
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How successful were the Lord Lieutenants in promot

How successful were the Lord Lieutenants in promoting and extending power and authority of the Crown into the localities in the years 1485-1603?

  • Sherrifs - previously maintained law/ order and organised local militia
  • Developed as a result of war (France and Scotland 1512-13) - dedicated post to muster/ train troops in foreign/ domestic wars (replaced sherrifs) and extend power into the localities/ extert greater control of local government (answered directly to the monarch) 
  • Filled with powerful nobles - enabled them to extend their power/authority because the noble Lieutenants were wealthy landowners with considerable influence
  • Primarily military - defense of the realm was a serious concern
  • Directly answerable to the monarch - unlike JPs and county sherrifs
  • Temporary - specific matters e.g. Pilgrimage of Grace, Kett's Rebellion
  • Mary I made the post permanent by dividing the kingdom into ten lieutenancies - post holders were responsible for military matters within a defined geographical region
  • Permanency lapsed when Elizabeth ended Mary's war with France in 1559
  • Temporary - e.g. Northern Rising (1569) 
  • Introduction of deputies - war with Spain (1585-) transformed the role, organised musters/ discipline and leadership in the case of a Spanish Armada
  • Shared fear of invasion/ mutual interest in defense enhanced link between government/ Privy Council
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How far did the role of the Lord Lieutenant change

How far did the role of the Lord Lieutenant change in the years 1485-1603?

  • There were some significant changes in the role of the Lord Lieutenant in the second half of the sixteenth century because:
    • Mary I divided the kingdom into ten lieutenancies - 
    • War with Spain - necessitated a permanent post (for both a Lord Lieutenant/ deputy)
    • Elizabeth I created the deputy post - 
  • The Crown's reforms led to a significant change in some aspects of the role of the Lord Lieutenant because:
    • Mary I allocated 10 Lieutenancies - 
  • The Crown's reforms were only partial, and did not affect some fundamental aspects of the role of the Lord Lieutenant in the sense that:
    • Mary's lieutenancies lapsed when Elizabeth made peace with France (in 1559)
    • Still temporary during Elizabeth I's reign - e.g. Northern Rebellion (1569)
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'The key factor responsible for changing the relat

'The key factor responsible for changing the relationship between Church and state in the years 1485-1603 was the role of parliament in religious affairs.' How far do you agree with this statement?

The role of parliament in religious affairs changed the relationship between Church and state:

  • Reformation parliament (1529-36) - used to force the CoE to go against the Pope e.g. Act in Restraint of Appeals - citizens could no longer take legal cases to the Pope. Church forced to submit to the pope/ abide by the law

Other factors changed the relationship between church and state:

  •  Parliament to force the Church in England to support his case (Clerics who opposed were punished)
  • The King's quest for an annulment - involved the framing and passing laws through parliament that greatly affected the Church, Pope's refusal to grant an annulment exacerbated this
  • The Act of Supremacy (1534) - confirmed Henry VIII's assumption of power over the English Church - let him reform the church as little/much as he wanted. Parliament gave Henry's supremacy the authority of statute law - made opposers punishable. Set a precedent that ruler wishing to reverse the Acts could only due so with parliament - enhanced the power of parliament/ altered the relationship between Church/state. 
  • The Act of Supremacy (1559)/settlement - had to use parliament to create her 'via media'. Firmly established when the Convocation passed the 39 articles (based on 42 articles) defining doctrine
  • Rise in Humanist thinking - 'popular' piety/ printing press/ Renaissance fuelled criticism of the Church.
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How accurate is it to say that the Act of Supremac

How accurate is it to say that the Act of Supremacy of 1534 was mainly responsible for the change in Church-state relations in the years 1485-1603?

  • The Act of Supremacy (1534)
    • Confirmed Henry VIII's assumption of power over the English Church - let him reform the church as little/much as he wanted. Parliament gave Henry's supremacy the authority of statute law - made opposers punishable. Set a precedent that ruler wishing to reverse the Acts could only due so with parliament - enhanced the power of parliament/ altered the relationship between Church/state. 
  • The role of parliament in religious affairs changed the relationship between Church and state:

    • Parliament to force the Church in England to support his case (Clerics who opposed were punished)
    • The King's quest for an annulment - involved the framing and passing laws through parliament that greatly affected the Church, Pope's refusal to grant an annulment exacerbated this
    • The Act of Supremacy (1534) - confirmed Henry VIII's assumption of power over the English Church - let him reform the church as little/much as he wanted. Parliament gave Henry's supremacy the authority of statute law - made opposers punishable. Set a precedent that ruler wishing to reverse the Acts could only due so with parliament - enhanced the power of parliament/ altered the relationship between Church/state. 
    • The Act of Supremacy (1559)/settlement - had to use parliament to create her 'via media'. Firmly established when the Convocation passed the 39 articles (based on 42 articles) defining doctrine
    • Rise in Humanist thinking - 'popular' piety/ printing press/ Renaissance fuelled criticism of the Church.
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How far do you agree that the status and authority

How far do you agree that the status and authority of parliament was transformed in the years 1485-1603?

  • Henry VII
    • Parliament was weak and insignificant - followed medieval pattern of master/servant 
    • Called infrequently - for new laws/money
  • Henry VIII
    • Reformation Parliament (1529-36) - triggered change: legislation established an independent English Church by transferring power from the papacy, remained occasional - called only for laws/subsides 
    • King-and-parliament became king-in-parliament - had authority over the Church (the King alone didn't)
  • Edward VI - Reinforced Henry VIII's notions
  • Mary I
    • Even Mary was forced through parliament to repeal the Act of Supremacy (1534)/restore papacy
    • First monarch to encounter resistance to Counter-Reformation attempts - e.g. MPs refused confiscating exile's property
  • Elizabeth I
    • Crown/Church by statute - added to parliament's importance beyond laws/revenue
    • Right to legislate religious matters - led to MPs discussing their rights/privileges (e.g. Peter Wentworth and free speech in 1576)
    • More powerful than the Crown - due to Elizabeth being a woman, Crown couldn't pass laws or raise revenue 
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How accurate is it to say that by 1603 parliament

How accurate is it to say that by 1603 parliament had become a permanent and essential part of royal government?

  • The Reformation Parliament, 1529-36
    • Legislated the break with Rome - necessary to establish an independent English Church by transferring power
    • Called increasingly frequently - still an occasional body (for laws/subsidies)
  • The Crown's growing dependence on parliamentary finance
    • 'King-and-parliament' -> 'king-in-parliament' - king authority over the Church, but the King alone didn't
  • The last two Tudor monarchs were female
    • Even Mary was forced to go through parliament to repeal the Act of Supremacy/  restore papal authority - encountered significant parliamentary resistance in her quest for a Counter-Reformation e.g. MPs refusing to confiscate exile's property
    • Reassertion primacy of Crown/Church by statute - Elizabeth helped to increase parliamentary power beyond laws/revenue 
  • The growing authority of the Privy Council The development of MPs' rights and privileges
    • Began after MPs gained the right to legislate on religious matters
  • MPs, demand for freedom of speech
    • Motivated MPs, led to the imprisonment of Wentworth and Cope (1587) - wanted to change religious settlement by adapting a more puritan doctrine. Still never a permanent part of government, but developed a sense of importance - reinforced by more MPs
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'In the years 1485-1603 parliament became the most

'In the years 1485-1603 parliament became the most powerful part of Tudor government.' How far do you agree with this statement?

  • Henry VII
    • Servant/master role - followed a medieval pattern 
    • Infrequent - called for law/tax
  • Henry VIII
    • 'Reformation parliament' (1529-36) - essential to create the independent English Church/ transfer authority
    • King-and-parliament -> king-in-parliament - had the authority over the Chuch but not alone
    • Still occasional - for laws/subsides
  • Edward VI
    • Reinforced Henry VII's notions
  • Mary I
    • Necessary to reverse the supremacy/ restore papal authority 
    • Rise in MP independence - refused bill confiscating property from exiles
  • Elizabeth I
    • Necessary to restore primacy of the Crown/Church by statute (again) - no longer just laws/ money
    • Debates or rights/ privileges - followed their ability to debate religious matters (e.g. Wentworth challenged free speech in 1576) In harmony with Crown, never 'permanent' but had a sense of importance (more MPs)
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How far do you agree that the key turning poing in

the relationship between Church and state in the years 1485-1603 was the Act of Supremacy, 1534?

  • Act of Supremacy 1534 (the break with Rome)
  • Declared himself supreme head, giving him complete control over the Church - now subject to royal control, enabling him to appoint Thomas Cromwell as Vicegerent in Spirituals (1534), who ran the Church on Henry's behalf
  • The act itself made clear that parliament was not granting Henry the title because was entitled to assume supreme headship of the Church, but because it was his royal prerogative Or....
  • Evolutionary - as government became more complex - or simply confirmed the way things were by 1534 - Act of Supremacy was merely a culmination of a series of events that began in the 1520s when Henry began his quest for an annulment. Break with Rome was accidental - quarrel between Henry and the Pope.
  • 'Revolution in government'/ the importance of Cromwell - parliament was simply used to acknowledge the King's title (implied that the English were willing to support) - Cromwell was a skilled parliamentarian - administered the Oath of Supremacy (couldn't block comissioners). Protestant himself/ knew the Crown needed finance - went further by abolishing traditional privileges (benefit of clergy/ sanctuary) - Church changed significantly 
  • Act of Supremacy (1534) laid the foundation for further changes - further change came in the next 40/50 years (-1580s) e.g. dissolution of the monasteries (1536-40) - if there was a turning point, it would be the dissolution (especially transferal of land)  and The English Prayer Books (1549/1552) - changed doctrine
  • Act of Supremacy (1559) - necessary because of Mary's repeal (1534 wasn't a turning point because Mary was able to restore Papal authority). By far the most long-lasting change.
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Maryann21

Report

The grandfather of Henry VII, the founder of the Tudor dynasty, was a powerful Welsh aristocrat who married the widow of King Henry V, Elizabeth. Heinrich's father, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, died two months before the birth of his son, and his mother Margaret, nee Somerset, was not yet 14 years old at that time. (She later married the second time to Lord Stanley.) Heinrich was of weak build and had a poor health throughout his life. In early youth, he was exposed to many dangers during the famous war of the Scarlet and White Rose. In 1468, he was seized by supporters of the York dynasty, but was released in 1470, when supreme power again passed for a short time into the hands of Henry VI. Check the Review of Tudor dynasty.

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