Causes & Effects of The Soviet Invasion of Afghani
Causes: Kabul Revolution: The dramatic overthrow of the Afghan government by the Socialists (similar to Communists) leads to an alliance between Afghanistan and the USSR. Afghan Civil War: President Taraki attempts to assassinate the leader of the army for control. Afghanistan descends into chaos. Taraki attempts to assassinate Amin,but was assassinated himself. Amin, the new leader, starts to ally with the USA. Brezhnev's Gamble: Brezhnev thought he could increase his power in the oil rich middle East and that the USA wouldn't get involved. He was very wrong!
Effects: The Carter Doctrine : Carter will not let the USSR take control in the Middle East. USA threatens to use force in the Middle East, gives weapons and CIA training to the Afghan rebels the Mujahideen. The USSR's was is a long, costly disaster. Rejection of the Detente Agreements : USA cancels all Detente trade agreements, refuses to sign SALT II (which would have reduced nuclear weapons). Olympic Boycott : USA refuse to attend the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow, USSR do the same 4 years later.
Effects of Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Prog
Move away from containment: Until now the USA have been passive, now with the SDI they become much more aggresive, trying to win the Cold War. End of the Arms Race: SDI uses technology the USSR is years away from achieving. A missile sheild in space means the USA can attak the USSR, but the USSR cannot attack the USA- the arms race is over, all of the USSR's missiles are now worthles. USSR Forced to Negotiate: Beacause of the above, the USSR start to negotiate a better relationship.
Effects of Gorbachev's Reforms and Personality
Seeks Peace : Meets Reagan at both Geneva and Rejkjavik, where the INF treaty is agreed, for the first time reducing nuclear weapons. Perestrioka and Glasnost : Gorbachev introduces some Capitalism into USSR's economy and opens up trade to try to make things better, but this causes some uprising. Rejects Brezhnev Doctrine : Due to economic problems, Gorbachev says satellites will have more independance to improve the lives of thier people. He also removes Soviet army from a number of thier satellite states.
Causes of Collapse of the USSR
Afghanistan: USSR overstreched itself, getting involved in a war they couldn't win, which bankrupted an already streched economy. SDI & Reagan: Reagan was aggressive, using SDI to push the USSR into negotiagting. Gorbachev : Perestroika/ Glasnost, plus the rejection of the Brezhnev Doctrine and removal of USSR's troops from satellite states started uprisings that could not be stopped.