Topic 4: Nazi domestic policies 1933 - 1939

  • Created by: Pin0010
  • Created on: 11-04-19 13:10

Policies towards women

  • Girls were prevented from studying science and could only learn the mathematics necessary to be a housewife
  • In PE girls were taught how to cook and care for the home
  • The Nazi Party was a man's party, there were no women in any of the senior positions
  • Women had to stay at home, produce more childeren and look after the family
    • so that more racially- pure Germans were produced
    • to solve unemployment problems by removing women
  • women were forced to give up their jobs when they got married
  • Women could not be civil servaants (judges, lawyers, doctors)
  • Men were prefferd to women in job applications
  • Nazi propaganda discourage wearing make-up and heels
  • Couples received a loan of 1000 marks when they got married
    • The more children they had the less they had to pay back
  • The role of women could be summarized as the 3 K's
    • Kinder (children)
    • Kirche (church)
    • Kuche (cooking
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Changes in education

  • All schools came under Nazi control
  • All school books were rewritten and boys and girls went to different schools
  • The curriculum was changed and was focussed on preparing the boys to go to war and preparing the girls to be a house wife
  • History: taught about the great events of German history. This included:
    • the stab in the back theory
    • the nazis in WW1
  • Biology: students were taught the phoey " race science".  which was designed to show German superiority
  • PE: there was more PE time and boxing was compulsory for boys and girls were taught to cook and care for the home
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Nazi Youth Movements

  • Youth movements were compulsory for the children from the age of 5 to 18
    • Boys: Pimpfen, German Youth and then Hitler Youth
    • Girls: League of German Maidens
  • They took part in ' fun' activites like: camping, sports, outings.  This made them very popular at first
  • They also had lectures about Nazi ideas like racism
  • Boys were prepared for the army with activities like cleaning rifles, throwing handgrenades, etc.
  • Children were encouraged to spy on their parents and report anything suspicious
  • The meetings were in the evenings and on weekends, this gave girls little time to do their homework which prevented them from having a career
  • In 1933 30% of German children were in youth movements in 1938 it was 82% despite it being compulsory
  • Towards the late-1930's protest groups like the Edelweiss pirates and Swing youth were set up as a protest towards the Hitler youth
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Labour service

  • The Labour Service was a government scheme that provided jobs for the unemployed, it was setup before the Nazis came to power e.g. cutting down tress, building bridges
  • The Nazis took this a step further as Hitler was keen on the building of an Autobahn
  • All men at the age of 18 had to spend 6 mobths in the Labour Service
    • Their wages were around 50p per week
    • everything was provided for them
    • They wore uniforms and marched like soldiers to work everyday
    • much of the work was done by hand so that it created more jobs, no machines were used
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Labour Front

  • Took over the role of the banned trade unions, it ordered that:
    • workers could not be aacked on the spot
    • a worker could not leave his job without government permission
  • Workers had to pay membership dues to the labour Front
    • This was taken from their wages
  • By 1939, the Labour Front had increased working hours from 60 hours a week to 72
  • Strikes were outlawed
  • The average factory worker earned ten times more than those who were paid by the state due to unemployment (dole money)
    • So there were little complaints
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Schönheit Der Arbeit (Beauty of Labour)

  • part of the German Labour Front
  • it was aimed to improve working conditions in factories
  • introduced features like washing facilites and low-cost canteens
  • organised factory celebrations, folk dancing and political educations
  • existed alongside the KdF program
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Kracht durch Freude

  • The Nazis also wanted to control the leisure time of their workers
  • Some activities include: hikes, sporting events, theatre, concerts, lecutres, holidays, etc.
  • Workers averaged between 6 to 15 days of paid holiday each year
    • In the Weimar republic this was between 3 and 8 days
  • Cheap holidays were organised by KdF to support the suppport of ordinary Germans
  • The KdF also provided PE sessions and sports facilities in factories and workplaces
  • In 1938, the KdF launched the Volkswagen, designed by Ferdinand Porsche
    • It was priced below 1,000 marks and it was repayable over 4 years
    • It would involve weekly installments of 6 marks a week 
    • When the work reached 750 marks they would be given a car
    • By November 1940 there were 300,000 potential buyers
    • No one was given a car
    • The millions invested were redirected to expanding the weapon industry
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Rearmament

  • Created millions of new jobs
  • From 1935 Hitler ordered the building of submarines, aircraft and tanks
    • it opposed the ToV
    • at first it was done secretly then openly
  • By 1939, the army had increased from 100,000 to 1,400,000
  • Autarky: Hitler wanted Germany to be self-sufficient during the war so he restricted foreign imports and research was put into finding substitutes of cotton, oil, rubber and coffee

Employment

  • Invisible unemployment: Jews, women and young men in the labour front were not counted as unemployed
  • By 1936, recorded unemployment went from 6 million to 1 million (invisible unemployment)
  • By 1938 the industry was short of workers
  • In 1937 there was the duty year and women were encouraged to work ' patriotically' in the factories to help rearmament
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persecution of minorities

  • Hitler blamed the Jews for the defeat of Germany in WW1, so he wanted to purify Germany and get rid of them
  • Only 1% of German population was Jewish and they were well-intergrated, contributed to society and had many important roles
  • In April 1933, there was a call for Jewish shops to be boycotted
    • Stormtroopers stood outside to prevent Germans from going into the shops
    • Slogans were painted on shop windows
  • In 1933 Jews were banned from certain proffessions e.g. doctors, dentists, etc.
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Nuremberg Laws

  • Made Jews second class citizens and prevented them from marrying non-Jews
  • All civil rights were removed
    • Going to the movies
    • Going to university
    • voting
    • Travelling
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Kristallnacht

  • In 1938 a young Jew assassinated a German diplomat in France
  • This led to an organised attack on Jewish houses, shops and synagogues all over Germany
  • 91 Jews were killed and 20,000 were arrested
  • The Jewish community had to pay a ' fine' of 1 billion marks
  • From early 1939 Jews were banned from owning businesses
  • men had to add the name 'Israel' to their own and women had to add the name 'Sara' 
  • The aim was to make Jews leave
  • However during the war this became harder so they were put into concentration camps
  • The Nazis also perecuted Slavs, negroes, gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled and tramps
  • Many were put into concentration camps and then murdered
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