Aims of the league..
A typical exam q would be
"what were the main aims of the league of nations? (4marks)"
You must include:
1.) stopping wars
3.)Improve living and working conditions around the world
Why did they fail?
You must write about:
---> Economic sanctions
---> Absence of the USA
---> Self interest of leading members (Britain and France)
To get top marks link them together:
e.g. It was not a surprise the economic sanctions did not work as the USA was the most powerful country of the time and were not part of the league (even though it was Woodrow Wilson's idea) and as a result the absence of the USA meant that the sanctions did not work as countries that were not part of the league (e.g. Germany) were still able to trade with America.
Aaland Islands- 1921-Sweden and Finland accepted the League's arbitration to give the Aaland Islands to Finland.
Austria- 1923- The league sent economic experts to Austria when their goverment went bankrupt.
Bulgaria- 1925- Greece obeyed the Leagues orders and pulled out of Bulgaria.
In the 1920's the league tackled disease as they worked out how to prevent malaria and leprocy.
The league approved the slavery convention and altogether freed 200,000 slaves (in 1926)
Poland-1921- The Poles invaded Vilna (the capital of Lithuania). The League ordered Poland to withdraw. Poland refused; the League could do nothing.
Corfu- 1923-Mussolini ignored the League's orders to pull out of Corfu, and made Greece pay money to Italy.
Disarmament- 1923 and 1932- Disarmament talks failed, because Germany demanded as many weapons as everyone else.
Kellog- Briand pact- 1928- Sixty-five countries signed a treaty to end war - but then they just ignored it.
- September 1931- Japanese claim that Chinese soldiers sabotaged the Manchurian railway in Korea, which Japan controlled. Japan attacked and by February 1932, had brutally conquered Manchuria.
January-March 1932, Japan attacked and captured the city of Shanghai in China itself. In March 1932, China appealed to the League of Nations.
April 1932, a League delegation led by Lord Lytton arrived in Manchuria to see what was happening. October 1932 it declared that Japan should leave. In February 1933, a special assembly of the League voted against Japan, so the Japanese walked out.
The League, however, could not agree on sanctions, and Britain and France were not prepared to send an army. Not only did the Japanese stay in Manchuria, but in July 1937 they also invaded China.
Abyssinia (now Ethiopia)
December 1934, a dispute about the border between Abyssinia and the Italian Somaliland flared into fighting.
January 1935, the emperor of Abyssinia, asked the League to arbitrate. July 1935, the League banned arms sales to either side, and in September 1935, it appointed a five-power committee to arbitrate.
October 1935, the League's committee suggested that Italy should have some land in Abyssinia. Instead, Italy's 100,000-strong army invaded Abyssinia. The Italian troops used poison gas and attacked Red Cross hospitals.
Britain and France refused to intervene. December 1935, news leaked out about the Hoare-Laval Pact - a secret plan made by the foreign secretary of Britain and the prime minister of France to give Abyssinia to Italy. In the end, the League did almost nothing. By May 1936, Italy had conquered Abyssinia.