History - Peacemaking and the League of Nations

History - Unit One (International Relations)

Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations

How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

Why did the Leage of Nations fail in its aim to keep peace?

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
History
Unit One ­ International Relations
Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?
The Aims of the Big Three
The leaders of the great powers met at Versailles in 1919 to discuss
the terms that would be imposed upon Germany. Their ideas varied
considerably.
George Clemenceau (France)
o Germany must be punished
o Pay for the cost of the war and for the humiliation suffered
by France
o Guarantees that it could never happen again
o Rhineland and Alsace-Lorraine to be returned
o HARSH
Lloyd George (Britain)
o Wanted Germany to be punished, but still be allowed to
recover
o Keep trade routes
o Germany to lose its navy and colonies
o FAIR
Woodrow Wilson (USA)
o Hadn't suffered much from the war so it didn't need to seek
any kind of revenge from Germany
o Ensure that war never broke out again (`Fourteen Points')
o WEAK
The Fourteen Points
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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
Woodrow Wilson's main concern was making sure that war never
broke out again. Therefore, he came up with the `Fourteen Points' to
help achieve this. Some of the main points were:
Disarmament
Self-determination
The League of Nations to be set up
Main Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on the 28th of June 1919.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
War guilt
o Germany to accept blame for the war (`Clause 231')
Anschluss
o Forbidden to unite with Austria to form a super state
The Treaty became known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them
and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
Britain and France were increasing their empires still
Why did the League of Nations fail in its aim to keep peace?
The League of Nations
The League of Nations was made up of twenty-six articles, with ten
really important ones. In the 1920s it had forty-two members. It was an
attempt to create an international organisation to prevent future wars.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
However, some countries were not allowed to join, including
Germany and Russia.
o This immediately meant that two of the most important
countries were banned.
o They did both join though later on; Germany in 1926 and
Russia in 1934.
The most powerful members were Britain, France, Japan and
Italy.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
If the states in dispute failed to listen to the Assembly's decision,
the League could introduce economic sanctions. The purpose of
this sanction was to financially hit the aggressor nation so that
she would have to do as the League required.
The League could order League members not to do any trade with
an aggressor nation in an effort to bring that aggressor nation to
heel.
If this failed, the League could introduce physical sanctions.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
o China claimed that Japan had committed and act of
aggression; Japan claimed it had invaded to restore order.
o The commission issued a report a year later. It found that
China's rule was chaotic, and Japan had some grievances
against it, but the invasion was condemned and said that
Manchuria should be a self-governing state.
o Ignoring the League's wishes, by 1933, Japan controlled the
whole of Manchuria.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
o In October 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia because there had
been a dispute over the border (Somaliland).
o The League was investigating this and was due to report
back on it; but Mussolini (the Italian ruler) didn't wait, and
was looking for the opportunity to make Ethiopia part of its
empire.
o Ethiopia appealed to the League, who was much quicker to
react this time.…read more

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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Unit 1
A formalised protest between Britain, France and Italy against German
rearmament and a commitment to stand, united, against Germany
(particularly Hitler)
Reasons for the Collapse of the League
9 | Page…read more

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