THE USA'S WEALTH
- During the war US lent millions of dollars to Europes allies (Britain) with intrerests, there for after they were getting lots of money.
- They did not have to buy iron and steel from other countries because of the iron ore underground.
- It took up lots of trade lost by countries like britan who couldnt trade during the war.
- It had a large industry det up selling amunitions, houses etc. to make money.
- Electrical Goods - known as whitr goods. Included - fridges, freezers, washing machines, vacuums.
- The chemical industry increased for munitions.
- Rayon was accidently created which could be used for stockings.
- As a result of the chemical industry, plastic was created.
Rising Wages & Stable Prices
- New industries needed thousands of people employed
- Wages earnt went up slightly because of the profit earned.
- Prices remained stable and did not go up. Prices started to fall because of mass production. Things bought were becoming cheaper.
- Laissez Faire was a policy of not interfering. Government left industries alone.
- Polititions knew they were not able to help sort industries. The companies knew best.
- Things go wrong in industries - there was no back up.
- Government couldn't get hold of companies when economy falls.
- Employees could lower wages.
- Below standard working conditions.
- Americans expected to by American goods only.
- An import tax on any goods going into the country to rise the costs.
- 1922 Fordney McAimber tariff act. Makes American economy boom
- On the downside, People who manufactor goods loose out.
- Back fires on America Eventually.
- Percentage of income gets taxed.
- The lower tax meant more people could afford to buy more goods which means, industries get more money.
- On the downside, the money they would be spending on education, police, roads would be used on manufacturing goods.
Borrow money and pay it back. But what you want but can have 4 years to pay.
THE CYCLE OF PROSPERITY
Car Industry - mass production and standarised parts lead to increased car sales.
More standardisation parts are needed
More jobs are created in other industries.
Steel - Glass - Rubber - Leather
More people with jobs means that they can afford to buy a car
Jobs in Diners, Motels, And Gas Stations.
More oils used - More Roads are built
Weak Unions - the main factor where few trade unions exsisted to protect the right of the workers.
Industries which prospered :
- Electrical goods
- Road Building
Did not prosper:
- Coal Mining
- Ship Building
Agriculture did not share in the prosperity
- Over production - new technology.
- Single crop farming, eg tobacco, cotton.
- Crops decimated by 'pests' - some farmers couldn't afford pesticides.
- Prices collapsed
- Farmers had to borrow more money in order to hopefully grow more and sell enough to get a profit.
- Farmers could not afford to repay the loans and then they had to forfeit there farms.
US SOCIETY CHANCE IN THE 1920's
Nicknames the 'ROARING TWENTIES' because of the change.
Jazz music played on the radio, young, fashionable women known as the flappers wildly dancing the Charleston, large quantities of illegal alcohol was being drunk and everyone behaved in a scandalous manner.
Women were free; flappers drank, smoked, dates and wore outrageous new fashions. The older generations did not approve. Crazes for new music, dances this was called the 'Jazz Age'. Some people didn't want to join in the fun and some were not allowed. These years of violent racism and intolerance, with minorities excluded from any chance of sharing a good time.
Millions of people went to the cinema per week. Hollywood was the centre of the film industry.
The 'talkies' destroyed the careers of many actors and actresses who looked good, but had unattractive voices. Rules were made about the relationship between sexes were portrayed. They showed how young woman could live their lives freely.
Another form of mass entertainment, that flourished as workers began to enjoy greater prosperity and to have more leisure time.
Baseball was the most popular. Boxing was another popular sport. Golf was the most popular sport. Bobby Jones was a popular player because of his standards of sportsmanship.
Another name by which the 1920s were known as the 'Jazz Age'. Jazz was a new form of music that evolved from earlier forms of black music, such as the blues and ragtime. Its spread was assisted by the migration during the war of southern blacks into northern cities. The most famous clubs played the best music and gave opportunities for great performers. The craze of jazz music was further encouraged by the development of radio as a form of mass entertainment. Jazz was the excitement and danger for whites because of the first time being exposed to music.
Immigrants in the US
Why did they go to the US?
One reason is the fact that people were trying to get away from the poverty in their own countries. Propaganda etc persuaded people that the USA was amazing and people assumed life would be much better .
What problems did they face?
Prejudice and racists were faced by those of different countries. Housing was over crowded and dirty. There was no running water in the houses themselves and some people had to share on toilet without sewers. Jobs & diseases were a problem. Cholera was a water born disease which was influenced by over flowing toilets and contaminated water. These were the reasons why the immigrants left their old lives but in the US life was just as bad or worse.
IMMIGRANTS & COMMUNISM
What impact did the imigrants have on Americans
The imigrants were taking the AMericans jobs. Americans felt imigrants should be stopped from entering the country. The existing Americans were angry as opportunities were being taken. In 1924, immigration quotes were introduced so by 1929 only 150,000 immigrants were allowed into the country. People form Western Europe had more of a chance of being let in the country.
RED SCARE - Many immigrants lived in poverty who thought it was unfair that they had nothing and others had everything. They began to go on strikes and even some riots.
A purge of communists was inforced by J Edgar Hoover with a large group set out to get rid of communists, anarchists or anyone who passed a threat to the Government. He built up files of 60,000 suspects and 10,000 of them in total were imported.