History- Luther

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  • Created by: alice
  • Created on: 23-04-13 19:40

12Q; The 95 Theses

  • 1517
  • Against indulgences
    • selling salvation
  • provoked by: Johann Tetzel
    • Dominican Friar
    • revenue for Pope Leo X, St Peters Basilica 
    • The Archbishop of Mainz - simony - in debt to fruggers 
    • claimed could save the soul of man who violaed mother of christ
    • "a penny in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs"
  • Theologically opposed NOT POLITICAL
    • Prince Frederick banned Tetzel - economic, nationalistic
    • M.L personal conscience: "anorexic monk" (Mullett)
    • Couldn't sit back while people misled (Randell)  
    • 1510 visit to rome "thick dust of moral decay" (Mullett)
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12Q: why did the Peasants' War break out 1524?

  • Misunderstood Luther's message: thought he was talking Social Order
    • Taught Sola Fide, "Preisthood of all believers"- clergy not above others but M.L believed in hierachy = no social reformist
    • "A christian man is the most free lord of all and subject to none" (M.L on christian liberty 1520)
    • Cartoons - "cheap gin" (Scribner)
    • Luther wrote acedemically for the North, south different - agricultural 
    • 12 Articles - demands not theological but social, economical
      •  
        • Bad harvests in 1523
        • peasents are Villian
    • used luther
  • M.L "freedom" from Rome
  • 'Against the Murderous theiving hordes of peasents
  • 1525 Battle of Frankenhousen 
    • no weapons  
    • All Princes destroyed them - 100,000 dead

Luther nieve 

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12Q:Why M.L excommunicated?

  • Lipzig debate 1519 with Eck - M.L agrees with Hus
    • Czech burnt for heresy 1400s
    • M.L agreed with anti-papalism and Sola fide
    • = HERETIC (takes one to know one)
  • however didn't recant 1518 Cardinal Cajetan
    • reprentative of the papacy 
    • ML challenging penance and papal authority 
    • Made it clear to ML patience was running out, but ML "titanic" (Mullett)
  • Challenged Doctrine
    • sola fide - no indulgences, priests 
    • Sola Scriptura - denying papal authority
  •   had public support
    • ideas distributed - cartoons/printing press
    • 'priesthood of all believers'
  • Lost revenue
  • ML burnt Exsurge Domine 1520
    • Wrote 3 books that show why they excommunicated him
    • "Jubulee of freedom from centuries of catholic enslavement" (Mullett) 
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Debate on Luther

  • Mullett "Titanic"
    • got more important as ideas developed
  • McCulloch: Lucky to have political support
    • There was an atmosphere of tense excitement
    • Inevitable
  • Randell; man of conscience
  • Cameron: "formidable intellect" but one of many
  • Pettegree: Important up to 1521, becomes cantankerous
    • "he had already made his contribution by this time"
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24Q:To what extent did Luther Cause the reformatio

INTRO: 

  • 1517 95 Theses 
    • Tell them about it (Tetzel etc)
    • Challenged doctine: said Indulgences 'voluntary not obligatory'-suggests Sola Fide 
  • 1518 Rome finally reacts
    • Cardinal Cajetan, doesn't recant 
    • Lipzig debate with Johann Ek - Agrees with Hus = HERETIC
  • Therefore 1520 excommunicated, Luther defient, Burns papal Bull
  • 1521 Diet of Worms - protected by Princes - Fred's deal with Max - doesn't recant 
  • Mullett "titanic", MacCulloch; lucky to be supported by princes  

1: Pettegree M.L influencial up to 1521

  • Not key - other factors more importantant such as...
    • Pettegree "cantankerous"- counterintuitive
      • Marburg Colloquy 1529
    • Became political = Princes
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(2) To what extent did Luther Cause the reformatio

  • Princely reformation 
    • 1526 Diet of Spayer - retracted in 2nd Diet 1529
  • Schmaldic League 1531 - rusult of lack of cooperation from Charles 
    • led by Phillip of Hesse + John Elector of Saxony
    • MacCulloch; "Most powerful protestant force in europe","inspired by religious zeal"
      • clarity of Lutheranism obteained at Diet of Augsburg 1530
    • defeated by Charles Battle of Muhlberg 1547 = Hollow victory = Ref not over 
  • Charles relient on Princes - Turks + French - No army =1555 Peace of Augsburg
    • =SUCCESS gained by princes not Luther
    • MacCulloch; Small factor, Luck
    • Cameron agrees: Powerful interlect but one of many  
  • CONCLUSION
  • M.L key before 1521 - Pettegree - Already antichlericalism - M.L trigger
  • Randell says man of conscience, couldn't sit back and let people be misled 
  • M.L laid foundation for Princes to build on = put into political action 
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Q24:How important was printing to the success of L

INTRO:

  • Invented 1450 in Mainz 
  • "printing ended the scrbal corruption" Lotherington - originally R.C had control 
  • Monks copied out, Printing Press = speed - 300,000 copies of M.L's works 1517-20
  • Cartoons for illiterate peasents - Scribner
    • Literacy rate increasing- 5X people enroling at uni in 1500 than previous century
  • MacCulloch says "atmosphere of tense excitment" causeed by reformation made reading to become a skill worth aquiring 
  • spread of M.L books = spread of ideas = spread of reformation 

1: Princes 

  • Printing press presented M.L's theology - supported desire for national independance 
    • 'Address to a Christian man' said Princes should replace Rome 
    • wanted money and power NOT theological like M.L
    • Princes brought M.L's ideas to political action - content of texts gets less important
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(2) How important was printing to the success of L

  • However printing allowed misinterpretations 
  • Peasents consumed cartoons like "cheap gin" Scribner = War 1525
    • death of 100,000 - MacCulloch "no peasent army proved a longterm match for rained troops"
    • M.L. Against the murderous theiving hoardes of peasents 

2: Slow response of Pope and HRE - takes a year to send (1518) Cajetan 

  • M.L used time to gain widespread support - works distributed  
    • 1521 Worms, if charles killed him = Martyr for cause = too late
  • 1520 excommunicated after Lipzig debate 1519
    • WROTE - three key books - knew importantance of publishing ideas 
    • destroyed papal bull -Pope as ineffective as Charles

C: was key- spread M.L's ideas to the masses. but Reformation became political, ideas less important - Pettegree "he had already made his contribution" by 1521- therfore printing became less key. Hymns became more vital - MacCulloch "was not just impact of print but matter of the spoken and sung = Congregational appriciation 

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24Q:How important were the Princes to sucess of Lu

INTRO: 1517 M.L. 95 Theses

  • Appealled to Fred (Electorite of Saxony)
  • Provoked by indulgences -  Fred already banned them from saxony (sold his own)
    • M.L's reasons theologiocal, Fred's economical/political
  • Realised they could use M.L to gain independence- free germany from oppressive Rome
  • MacCulloch: Luther lucky to have princely support
    • If not no safe passage to/from Diet of Worms 1521
    • Prince Fred deal with Max/
    • after kidnapped by fred - taken to Wartburg to translate bible
  • However Pettegree believed M.L.'s importance ceased after 1521
    • beyond this point = Princely Reformation

1: Lutheranism success driven by nationalism- appealled to Germans

  • Peasents War 1525
    • misunderstood - thought social change - 12 articles- crushed with support of ML
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24Q:How important were Princes (2)

  • 1526 Diet of Speyer 
    • some chose R.C showing that about political independance not faith
  • 1529 Charles revokes decision 
    • 1531 Shmalkaldic League 
      • MacCulloch, "most powerful protestant force in europe"
    • however, Battle of Muhlburg 1547 defeated but PRINCES STILL HAVE POWER
      • need soldiers to fight Turks & France - spanish soldiers gone home
  • Lutheranism too well established to be crushed, M.L's teachings embraced and were nolonger dependant on political leaders 
  • Peace of Augsburg 1555 = VICTORY FOR PRINCES 
    • mullett says princes would be nothing without "titanic" M.L
    • cameron says M.L one of many, reformation inevitable due to other factors 

CONCLUSION: Princes allowed M.L's ideas to progress politically - other factors were necessary but without determination of princes the Peace of Augsburg may not have taken place

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24Q:success 1521 to 1529 due to weak charles

INTRO:

  • 1521 Diet of Worms
    • MacC M.L's arrival triumphant prosession like Christ to Jeruselum = SUCCESS
    • why weak? -new -young -elected by princes -has to honour Fred's deal with Max
      • therfore WEAK = ruled by princes
  • However gained successes 
    • Turks turned away from Viena 
    • French army of 2800 destroyed Battle of Pavia 1525 - Hapsburg Valois
      • Treaty of Canbrai 1529 = Peace 
    • 1529 Charles feels strong 
      • can go against Princes - 2nd Diet of Spayer - revokes 'cuis regio eius religio' 
    • Green "If his position abroad was weak, then his decisions would inevitably favour the German Protestants"

Points of Weakness

1: in Germany 

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24Q:success 1521 to 1529 due to weak charles

  • Foreign - spoke Femish 
  • Absent - Ferdinand ruled, young  
  • 1521 Worms let M.L go 
    • Couldn't kill because had been too slow at responding so M.L Martyr 
  • Princes are Nationalistic - want power
    • 2nd Diet of Spayer causes princely protest (& later Schmalkaldic League 1532)

2: In war

  • Kinghts War 1522 - Challenged princely authority 
  • Iconoclastic Riots 1521-22 & Peasents War 15245 
    • "crowds went gleefully smaching religous images" MacCulooch
    • "Cheap Gin" Scribner 
  • Princes crushed all threats to hierachy - events that strenghen Princes, weaken Charles

CONCLUSION: weakness of Charles only part of success - M.L was "titanic" Mullett in 1517 - Pope and Charles slow response - Princely reformation, they controlled Charles 

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