History 1929-2000

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America in Transition

Key issue: how did the USA change between 1929 and 1999

Focus area: The changes through the American history.

  • Hoover vs Rooservelt- new deal.
  • WW2's effects on the country, economicaly.
  • The Affluent society-youths became affluent and rich especaily.
  • Mcarthyism and the 1950s-2nd red scare
  • JFK the new frontier and offers of hope.
  • Nixon-watergate scandall
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Presidents 1929-1993

  • 1929-1933 - Herbet Hoover Lassie faire- Regged induvidlism
  • 1933-1945 - Franklin D Rooservelt Deppresion- New deal,AA
  • 1945-1953 - Harry S Trumen FDR- vice president *
  • 1953-1961 - Dweight Eisenhower- Red scare- Mcarthyism
  • 1961- 1963 - John F Kenedy Young, New frontier, Assainated
  • 1963-1969 - Lynodon B Johnson- JFK's vice- Vietnam*
  • 1969-1974 - Richard Nixon Watergate-resigned,ended vietnam
  • 1974-1977 - Gerald Ford Nixons- vice took over *
  • 1977- 1981 - James (jimmy) Carter- Son of poor farmer, seena as weak
  • 1981-1989 - Ronald Reagan Film star-good at media Ends cold war
  • 1989-1993- George Bush cenior- Regans vice, Gulf war
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Wall Street crash-Before 1

1920's BOOM

Good and Bad points

  • Economy used shares
  • Affluent-consumer goods
  • New music,trends,changed attitudes to was sex and alcohol
  • Crazes e.g. dances,pear necklaces
  • Fads e.g. penutbutter jelly and flag pole sitting
  • Freedom-Prosperity
  • Organized crime
  • Republicanism
  • Prohibition
  • Political scandal
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Wall street crash- Before 2

American society-before 1929

  • Capitalism- A little amount of the country (5%) owned alot of the countrys wealth (33%)
  • Traditional industries and agriculture suffered over producing
  • Republicans believed in laissez fair
  • High Tariffs-stopped other country's buying US goods
  • rumor/speculation on the stock market
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Wall street crash- happerning

24th (Black thursday)

  • The loans built up like political jengo so when there was speculation that people could loose all the shares people pulled out there blocks and the tower toppled
  • Due to loans people became homeless unemployed and a lot committed suicide. House prices also dropped and starvation became a problem.
  • The hole economy crashed and the republican attitudes weren't helping
  • People had to live in hoovervilles and begged for money or relying on handouts from charities
  • The bonus army a group of vetransa campaigned for trhe pentionn earlie to feed the familys but hoover in fear used violence to stop them.
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Wall street crash- new deal/AA

  • Due to the general election Roosevelt a democrat won a landslide victory over hoover
  • His first hundred days were crucial giving the USA relief recovery and reform.
  • He set up alphabet agencies (AA) to combat the unemployment leading to a lot of the other problems being dealt with.
  • WPA (work progreogress agencie)- Provided jobs on public works e.g. repairing pavements people used for fire wood.
  • TVA (Tennessee valley agencies)-provide employment buy building dambs to supply hydroelectricity and jobs to work on the site.
  • CCC ( Civilian conservation corps) Gave jobs to young unemployed men
  • NRA (National recovery administration) Tried to improve workers pay.


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New deal- did it work

Was the new deal a sucess

Yes

  • People began to trust buisnesses again so invested again.
  • Old and disabled people got pensions
  • Peoples ideas about the governments role changed (out:lassai fair in:New deal)
  • Workers had better wages and more rights due to the NRA.
  • Millions of jobs created
  • Industry and Agriculture began to recovered
  • Roosevelt won election easily
  • Roosevelt was very popular
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New deal- did it work

Was the new deal a sucess

No

  • Blacks and women didnt have eqaul rights
  • Many small farmers,city workers and blacks were still out of work
  • 9 million unemployed in 1939
  • The depression did not end till the WW1
  • Some people belived Roosevelt had to much power
  • Some People belived Rooservelt Was doing to much (wealthy)
  • Others People believed Roosevelt was doing to little (poor)
  • Southerners believed it interfered with local government
  • Businessmen believed it made it hard to make profit
  • Supreme court opposed Roosevelt
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WW2 in the 1950's

Brought USA out of depresion

  • Entered the war in 1940
  • Triggered by the bombing of Perl harbor
  • V.V campaign

-Blacks wanted V against the Nazis who were racists

-Blacks wanted V against racism in the USA as there was little in GB

  • Far better off than european countrys as they were only at threat of bombing from Japanease
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WW2-Impact on the USA

Economy

  • America was richer than before the war
  • The USA lent money to the other nations
  • US farming was back on its feet
  • War bonds pumped money into the economy

Power

  • America was a SUPERPOWER
  • America helped set up the UN
  • America had army bases all around the world.

Business and tecnology

  • American buissnesses became multinational
  • America had led the world in technology (beat Russia in War so better technology)
  • Only the USA had atomic bombs

Culture

  • US films and and music were everywere (starsds like elvis became national)
  • People tried to copy the US way of life
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WW2-changes in society

Women

  • Rosie the riveter liberated women
  • One third of all factory workers were women
  • After the war women saw higher wages but still not eqaul
  • Many women after the war left there jobs and independence

Black americans

  • War acted as the start oif the fight for equalitty
  • The V.V campaign started
  • Only 12 black officers were appointed in the army
  • Black women could become nurses but were only aloud to treat o the blacks.
  • Alot stayed in the arm,y or in the U.K
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WW2- Changes insociety 2

Some changes

  • Situations improved in the US e.g. blacks could give blood.
  • Double V began to combat racism- stopping racism abroad and at home.

Raised awareness

  • Rooservelt set up FEPC - investigating and discouraging discrimination within businesses.
  • Many blacks migrated to the north for work but there is seriouos racism there e.g. birmingham

Japanease americvans

  • Prosecuted due to the aftermath of Pearlharbour
  • 100,000 Japanese Americans were interned/put in jail
  • Fear of enemy agents saw many Japanese set to relocation camps were there property was taken away
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Women

In the 50s they lost a lot of the equality that they had in the 40s

  • After the war many women lost there jobs and had to go back to housework
  • Wages went down
  • The typical wife in the 50s cooked for her family cleaned and looked nice for her husband (almost a slave to men)

Women

  • 1920S flappers were paid less than men
  • Depression-they lost jobs to men
  • WW1-got the vote
  • WW2-increase job opportunities gained independence
  • After WW2 returned home to be a typical house wife
  • 1960s women (now) protested against inequality and women to be able to use the pill and have abortions
  • 1964-Banned any discrimination based on sex
  • 1973 Abortion legalization
  • 1989 women still earned 70% of men's wages
  • 1990 women were 6 times more likely to be living in poverty
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1950s

What was it like to live in america in the 1950s

Was it an affluent society?

Yes

  • There were lots more jobs available with higher wages
  • Lots of people enjoyed a high standard of living e.g. big houses in suburbia, consumer goods.

No

  • 22% of Americans lived in poverty mostly old black and southern people.

The religious revival e.g. more people going to church

  • The government encouraged religious as a good way to stop communism
  • People who lived in suburbia went to church for social reasons meet freinds
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1950s

The 1950s saw the creation of the 'youth culture' the teenager was invented.

  • For the first time teenagers had there own fashion
  • More money and freedom than ever before (affluent)
  • Rock and Roll music
  • Parent disapproved believed that it encouraged sex,drugs and crime

Teenagers throughout 1950s

  • Had more money to spend on fashion and entertainment
  • Their search for excitement meant they conflicted with the older generation who disproved of rock and roll and heavy beat sexual words and movements
  • Juvenile crime increased including knife crime
  • James Dean was a role model to 1950s teenagers

1920s-1990s

  • the typical teenager who followed stars(film/sport)
  • Rebelled against the government e.g. Watergate, Vietnam
  • Hippy movement the late 50s
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Youth culture

Typical

  • the typical teenager who followed stars(film/sport)
  • Rebelled against the government e.g. Watergate, Vietnam
  • Hippy movement the late 50s
  • Didn't really exist in the 30s and 40s
  • In the 50s they were more affluent
  • In the 60s protesting and hippy culture became big

Music

  • 1920s & 30s Jazz and country 'black bottom'
  • 1940s Musicals
  • 1950s Rock n Roll (Elvis Presley)
  • 1960s Beach boys, Beatles (popish)
  • 1970s Disco
  • 1980s Rap and Hip Hop
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McCarthyism

Americans were just entering the prudeice and cold war against the russians

  • Americans were frightened of the cominists (better dead than red)
  • Senator Joe McCarthy set out to un-root all the communist in America
  • If he suspected you to be a communist then you were treated very badly

What was it?

  • He led a campain (Mcarthys witch hunt) between 1950-1954
  • He never once offered viable proof that someone was communist
  • During the campaign over 2000 people were put on trial at the House of Un America activities committee.(HUAC) He accused loads of people of being USSR agents.
  • He was uncovered as being a liar and a bully after becoming chairman of the Senate's Permanent Committee of investigation.
  • After 1954 the senate condemned his methods forcing him out of public life
  • The USAs reputation for justice and fairness was scared
  • All the people who were accused lost there jobs and ruined there lives some were even put in jail.
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James F Kennedy

JFK -the man

In the 1960s the new Democratic President, JFK at only 43 offered hope

  • He recognized that the USA had serious problems overall with prosperity
  • Inspired faith in the idea that the government could help improve lives

The 'new frontier' and the 'Great society

Kennedy offered the Americans the 'new frontier' but he was assassinated but his predecessor Lyndon Johnson used the same concepts in the Great society which tried to solve thing which include:

  • Civil rights
  • Poverty,poor housing and unemployment especially in the inner cities.
  • Inadiqate medical care

Due to Kennedy's death and his unequal congress he only passed the 'minimum wage increased' and some money was 'spent helping housing in poor areas'

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Richard Nixon

What was the water gate scandal?

On the 17th of June 1972, 5 men broke into the democratic HQ and attempted to bug the offices but were caught. In the trial they admited that the republicans paid them to do it.

How were the media involved?

After it was admited there had to be an investigation but although the goverment incvestigation found nothing 2 journalist including Bob Woodward found out the truth

Why did Nixon resign?

  • He went on national TV and told people that he had nothing to do with it (lie)
  • They also found out that he was very aggressive and a cover up
  • He was offered a government pardon which meant if he resigned he left unharmed
  • Americans had lost trust in the government.
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Ronald Regan

Why was he popular

  • Humble (poor background)
  • Very sporty esp American football
  • Well spoken-calming voice
  • Radio and TV personality
  • Movie star 'all American hero'
  • Very good at Private relations
  • Glamorous

Ideas and policies

  • Very posotive about americans and the future 'we can do anything!'
  • Government should do what they want no other way around it
  • Anti communist
  • Spent lots on defense... made people feel safe
  • Reduced income taxes and social welfare
  • Believed in rugged individualism
  • Built a death star like structure (star wars) to defend America.
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Race issues

Race Issues in america

new section

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Race issues

The race issues in america 1929-1990

Key issue: How did the lives of black people in america change between 1929 and 1990

  • Discrimination and racism was slowly been seen as a bad thing by americans
  • The war helped inspire the ensuring of segregation in America (VV campaign)
  • Martin Luther king tried to get laws passed stopping racism and segregation
  • Malcolm X and the black panthers represented black power which used violent methods to stop racism

Focus area

  • The nature and staus of black people in 1929 (KKK and black americans)
  • 2nd World war and race issues: Jim Crow army, origin of the later civil rights movement, VV campaign
  • Civil rights movement (M.L.K, Malcolm X,Black panthers,black power
  • The economic and social progress of black people up to 19990; politics,the media and entertainment e.g. Louis Armstrong
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Black americans

Blacks in america were segragated against as whites belived the blacks Americans were inferious and should be segragated in public areas (segragation). It existed in southern states and was known as the Jim Crow laws.

where was segragation applied

  • Blood banks
  • Schools
  • Toilets
  • Swimming pools
  • Buses
  • Restaurants
  • Dance halls
  • Buses
  • Cinemas
  • Neighborhoods
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The KKK

The ku klux klan

  • The aim of the klu klux klan was yo prevent blacks from gaining eqaul rights.
  • Acts included treats,burning crosses,lynching,intimidating,beatings
  • They got away with it because they had a lot of judges who were members and white people were to frightened often to speak out against them

Migration

To escapoe segragation and to find better paid work black people move north but there was still some racism.

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Who stood up for blacks

The national association for the advancemnt of coluoured prople (NAACP) usewd legal methods to stop racism and get better rights.

The 1940s

During the war sodiers fought in jim crow segragated armies who did unheroic jobs such as cleaning.

  • Blacks in the army experienced life in the army without segragation abroad
  • A home there were new and better paid jobs were discrimination was banned (did that effect much?)
  • Awareness was raised as there was racism abroad due to Hitler (Americans fought they couldn't be as bad as the Nazis)
  • White attitudes changed e.g. President

Impact of secounds world war

  • How could a 'Jim Crow' army (an army who used segragatiuon) fight the racist power of Nazi germany when they suffered from racism at home
  • An act passed in 1940 forbid discrimination of calling up and training of black soldiers.
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Civil rights movement

  • Blacks should have the same social and political rights
  • Blacks should continue to live in America as US citizens
  • Black and white communities should live together in harmony

Tactics

-Court cases

-Sit ins

-Marches

-Demonstrations

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MLK

The most famous civil rights leader was Martin Luther kin. He believed in non violent methods

  • He was the most famous civil rights leader
  • He believed in prosperity in equality for black people and devoted his life to the cause.
  • He took central role in Civil rights Action E.g. the bus boycott
  • Under his leadership a great deal was achieved
  • His non-violent approach won over many blacks and some whites
  • He had inspirational speeches
  • He made civil rights a global issue
  • MLK became a iconic figure for black and oppressed people.
  • Even after his death he inspired black Americans.
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Malcom X

Malcolm X was part of the nation of Islam. He believed that black and whites should always be enemy's. He also believed that blacks should be violent against whites (e.g KKK).He led the black power movement who encouraged people to Cary guns.

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Brown Decision

1

In 1954 a Linda Brow wasnt allowed to go to a near by school but one miles away. So her father with the help of the NACCP took the board of education to the supreme court. They won and in the same year the Cheif of justice decared that segragation was illegal in education

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The Bus Boycott

2

On the 1st of december 1955 Rosa Parks fefused to give up her seat to a white passenger. As a result she was arrested and put in jail, The B americans anwser to this was to boycott the busses. They were 60% of the busses passengers and all off the black americans walked to work ect for A whole year and on november 1956 secrimination on transport was banned.

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Little Rock 9 Arkansar

3

In september 1957 nine black pupils tried to enter the Little rock high school, the the govener used national gaudsmen to stop them entering. President eisenhower took the blacks side and sent in 1000 101 parratropers to protect the students on their way to school and in leson.

  • It inspired B americans
  • Already act passed so no more acts
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Freedom rides

A group of lots of black and white protesters interracial took buses across Virginia, Blacks used whites toilets and they were attached by the KKK. the freedom rides were inspired by sit ins in bars and restaurants were people would go to a white eating area and weight there provoking violent reactions that shocked people.

Orginised by (CORE)

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Leading happernings in the CRM 1

1954- Brown vs Board of education

1955- Emmet Till- Black American boy was killed at the age of 14 after wiserling at white women, said to be one of the reasons the CRM started.

1955-1956- Montgomery bus boycott- Supreme court ruled segregation illegal on buses.

1956 Little rock 9- Eisenhower sent in paratroopers - showed governments supported BA

1957-Civil rights act-Act made it illegal to discriminate

1962-James Meredith wasn't allowed into the University of Mississippi because he was black and JFK sent in troops to escort him. Latter became human rights layer.

1963-Birmingham Alabama- Peaceful protests. MLK used non violent tactics against bull Connor and BC flipped letting the dogs out onto black Americans and fiecely hosed them.

1963-March to Washington- 250000 people of which 20% were white and martin Luther king did his 'i have a dream' speech.

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Leading happernings in the CRM 2

1964- Civil Rights act- 64 open the door

1965- Voting act - 65 keep the vote alive

1967-Supreme court ruled interaciel marrige not illegal

1968-Civil rights act on housing so there was no descrimination in housing.

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Problems

1965 Black getto los angeles violen. Police treat blacks badly, Killed 34,100s injured,4000 arrested. Full media studies, Full media coverage

1967-Riots-83 people shot dead (mostly black). Cities like detroit were luted and burned.

Blacks apparently desproyed white symbolism

1968-Martin Luther King was assassinated. Violence erupts

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Methods of Protest

MLK

  • non violence
  • peaceful protests
  • marches
  • sit ins
  • Christian leadership meetings

Malcolm X- Violence

  • Violence
  • Reassert black history and Independence from white
  • Separatism

Leader of the nation of Islam

  • Wanted blacks and white americans separated
  • Assasinated
  • Apealed to young african americans
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Acts

1964-open the door

Civil rights act

1. Gave black Americans equal rights to enter a restaurant, hotel,shop and places of entertainment

2.Outlawed racial discrimination in employment

1965-keep voting alive

Outlawed racial discrimination over the right to vote

1967-interracial marriage

1968-civil rights for housing

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Black power

Racial: descrimination. Despite the sucess in the south b americans stilll lived with some serious disadvantages.

In the 1960s the average income of a black family was only half that of a white family.

In 1967 one third of all black americans were living below the poverty line.

In the north were 50% of blacks lived the was realy bad schools and housing and hight unemployment.

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Positives aboat blacks since the 1970s

Progress

Jesse Jackson ran for president

Colin Powell was a tree star soldier and incarge of the armed forces

Eddie Murphy became the secound highest paid actor

1994 40 black congressmen still minority

Micheal Jackson and black athleas

Some middle class black family earning $50 000 or more rouse by 46%

Unchanged

32 % of black American family's live below the poverty line. 8% of whites did

Throughout the 80s and 90s whites opposed 'Affirmative action'.

1981 300 000 people protested in Washington about Regan policies and after in 1992- LA race riots

Blacks were still more lickerly to be inpoverty or unemployed than white people

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Comments

Abby R

It's John F. Kennedy - lots of other mistakes like this too, but overall not a bad revision tool.

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