Race Issue USA, 1929-2000

Full notes on  'Changing attitudes to the race issue in the USA, 1929-2000'

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Segregation and Jim Crow Laws
South-
· Segregation in the south
· Imposed through Jim Crow Laws
· Blacks were prevented from voting ­ literacy tests
· Scottsboro Trials ­ 8 black boys convicted of rape
North-
· Some states had no segregation laws ­ but there was still racism
· 1920s ­ many black workers migrated from the south
· Jazz brought fame to black singers & musicians ie Louis Armstrong
· Harlem became the centre of Harlem Renaissance for black musicians, singers, artists, writers etc.
The NAACP
· Formed in 1909
· National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People
· Fought against racial injustice, often using the legal system
· Main opponent of the Ku Klux Klan
· Blocked the nomination of judge · Pressured Roosevelt into a non-
Parker (a racist) to be in the discriminatory policy in war
supreme court industries & federal employment
The Ku Klux Klan
· Founded in 1860s
· Believed in white supremacy
· Members had to be WASPS (White Anglo Saxon Protestants)
· Dressed in white robes & hoods
· Used terror and violence to intimidate anyone who believed in equal rights
· Membership peaked mid 1920s
The Depression and New Deal
After the Wall Street Crash (1929), America entered the Great Depression
· By 1932, one third of black males were jobless
· 2 million black farmers had been forced of the land
· Unemployment amongst blacks was nearly 60% in the north
· 3x the amount of black families claimed relief as white families
· The new deal provided 1 million jobs for blacks and training for 500,000
· PWA allocated funds for the building of black hospitals, universities and housing
· FERA granted aid to 30% of black American families
· Black Americans in the government rose from 50,000 (1933) to 200,000 (1945)
Roosevelt did little to eliminate unfair hiring practices.

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The Jim Crow Army
= a segregated unit of the US army made up of black Americans who fought in WW2
Many black Americans enlisted to the American army
· The navy would only accept the blacks as mess men (working in canteens)
· Before 1944, blacks were not allowed into combats in the marines
· The US air force did not accept black pilots originally.…read more

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Brown vs.…read more

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Martin Luther King
Malcom X
· Rejected King's peaceful methods
· Good public speaker
· Encouraged the self-esteem of black Americans
· Views and ideas became the foundation for Black Power and Black Panthers
Stokely Carmichael
· Leading spokesperson of the Black Power movement
· 1966 ­ became chairman of SNCC
· Adopted slogan `black is beautiful'
· 1968 ­ joined Black Panthers…read more

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Civil Rights Legislation
Civil Rights Act, 1964 · Racial discrimination banned in employment
· Black students given rights to enter all public places and bodies receiving
government money
· Equal Employment Opportunities Commission set up to investigate
complains of discrimination
Voting Rights Act, 1965 · Stopped racial discrimination over right to vote
· Ended literacy tests
Supreme Court Ruling, 1967 · Supreme court ruled that state laws banning interracial marriages were
unconstitutional
Fair Housing Act, 1968 · Made racial discrimination illegal in the property market…read more

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