History Cycle Term 3

Power of Propoganda

Specific propoganda methods were used which indoctrinated the youth to serve Hitler and the Nazis. Teachers had to be apart of the Nazi party and teach about their views and beliefs.

German boys had to join the Hitler Youth for military service and the girls were part of the League of German Maidens being taught of motherhood.

The Poision Mushroom was an antisemetic book that portrayed Jews as evil and dangerous.

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Anti-Semitic policies

Jews were persecuted because of their "racial identity". The Nazis thought of them as a "biologically inferior race". Grandparents and parents who converted to Christianity were still classified as Jews Nazi ideology (system of beliefs) thought they still had Jewish blood.

For Germans to be protected against Jews Germany had to become Judenrein. To achieve this repressive laws and decrees were made which seperated Jews from political, social, educational, cultural, economic and sporting life such as:

  • No freedom of speech
  • Could not be civil servants
  • Could not use public tansport 
  • Could not sit on the same benches as Germans
  • No Jew could be a teacher or professor
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They too were victims

Along with the Jews, Sinti and Roma gypsies, physically and mentally disabled, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and black people were all subjected to Nazi violence. All opponents of the Nazi and outspoken church leaders were also persecuted. 

German scientists agreed with selective breeding (the notion that only the best should breed with the best) this was to be done to reduce the number of the "genetically inferior". Sterilisation programmes were used (treatment that results in people being unable to produce children). Black people, mixed children, mentally or physically disabled and people with hereditary diseases were forcably sterilised.

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Nazi Concentration Camp Universe

The first camps were made in 1933 for the purpose of silencing and terrorising opponents of the regime. World War Two began in 1939 and soon slave-labour camps were not getting stopped because of the contribution they brought for the economy during the war. There were thousands camps with different purposes all around the parts of Europe that Germany occupied.

  • Prisioner of war camps
  • Tansit camps
  • Six death camps
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Nazi Camps

The lives of the inmates were totally controlled by the Nazis that had the power to punish or have random executions. The prisioners were shaved and only had one set of clothes. Housing was over-crowded small barracks without proper sanitation. 

Roll-call was done everyday for hous sometimes in freezing tempretures. The food was starvation rations (a fixed allowance of food or clothing) while having to work as slave labourers.

  • Brutal treatment
  • Hunger 
  • Disease
  • Harsh tempretures 
  • Worked to death
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Seeking Refuge

1938 half of German Jews managed to escape (500 000). The annexation (taking possesion of another country, usually by force) of Austria brought 1850 000 Jews under Nazi leadership.

Stricter immigration policies and quotas were made and followed by countries around the world.

In July 1938 Roosevelt held the Evian confrence in Frace to discuss the number of Jews fleeing Germany and Austria. 32 countries had repersetitives attending. The confrence failed as many countries made excuses as to why they cannot afford more Jews entering their country.

Nazis thought of this that countries would not pick sides with the Jews.

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Kristallnacht

9 November the Nazis started violent attacks on German and Austrian Jews. The government gave the order to destroy synagogues, homes, schools, cementries and hospitals. Windows were broken and shops looted of more than 8000 Jews.

The community of Jews had to pay for the damage caused by the Nazis. 30 000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Life got worse for the Jews as attacks became regular and new restrictive laws were created.

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Nazism Engulfs the Jews of Europe

September 1939 World War 2 began with the ivasion of Poland. Before this Germany already controlled:

  • Saarland
  • Rinelands
  • Austria
  • Most of Czechoslovakia
  • Memel

Jews in these areas became victims to the Nazis having to endure humiliation, oppressive restrictions (laws or actions that limit people's freedom and take away their rights) and brutality. 

Jews had to be distinguishable:

  • White armband with blue Star of David
  • Yellow star on outer garments
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Ghettos

With the invasion of Poland 3 million Jews became subjected to Nazi rule. Jews were driven out of their homes into small, sealed off areas within cities were surrounded by high walls or barbed wire fences- Ghettos

Leaving without permission could result in being shot. At the beginning concerts were still held, secret prayer services and illigeal schooling took place. Life thereafter became survival as there was a shortage of food selther and medicines. A lot of Jews died because of starvation, disease or unexpected killings. 

When taken from the Ghettos people worked in inhumaine conditions as slave labourers helping Germany with the war. Deportations started in 1942 after the agreement by the Nazis for the murder of all the Jews in Europe.

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The Warsaw Ghetto

November 1940 came the sealing off with almost half a million Jews living inside. The ghetto took up 2% of city space and Jews counting for 30% of the population. The Ghetto was overcrowded and the conditions were appalling. End of 1941 5000 people were dying thanks to starvation and disease every month.

Mass deportations took place between July and September 1942 with an estimated 300 000 Jews that was deported.

At the end of 1942  55 000 Jews remained and an underground resistance movement (opposing or fighting against a government, group or idea) formed. The Jewish Fighting Organsation planned the uprising that started April 1943. They did not have many fire arms and were fewer than the Nazi forces. The troops held out for almost 4 weeks.

In the end Nazis set fire to the buildings thus distroying the ghetto. The survivors were deported to slave-labour or death camps.

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Mass Murder

During the ivasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 the 4 units of Einsatzgruppen being led by the ** followed the German army. The people were

  • Policemen
  • Police reservits 
  • Local collaborators (people who assisted the Nazis or participated in the killing process)

They went into towns and villages to murder those who the Nazi believed to be "enemies of the state" but their primary target being Jews and communists.

The mobile killing units surprised Jewish communities. Men, women and children were taken to the outskirts of town or village and shot into mass graves. 

The Einsatzgruppen murder 1.5 million Jews and hundreds of thousands of Soviets that were thought of as communists. The comanders needed to hand in daily reports of the killing mission to the Nazi headquarters.

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